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Full text of "A natural history of birds : illustrated with a hundred and one copper plates, curiously engraven from the life"

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A 



NATURAL HISTORY 



O F 




I 




D S. 



ILLUSTRATED 



With a Hundred and four Copper Plates, 
Engraven from the Life. 

Publiflied by the Author E L EAZA R ALB IN, 
and carefully colour'd by his Daughter and Himfelf^ 
from the Originals, drawn from the live Birds. 



VOL. II. 




LONDON: 

printed for the Author : And Sold by W i l l i a m I n n y s at the Weft-End of St. Pauls %. 
John Clarke under the Royal-Exchange, CornhUl -, and John Brindley 
Sit \h.QKing'^ Arms m New Bond-Street. MDCCXXXIV, 

'\^^^ 






f o 



The Right Worfliipful 



Sir ROBERT ^BDT Kt 




SIR, 

H E Succefs my former Volume met with 
from the Credit you gave it by your large 
Contributions and Patronage, would vindi- 
cate my Addrefs to You in This, either 
from a Motive of Gratitude to You, or of 
Interefl: to itfelf But this Volume hath no room to com- 
memorate Your Favours to its elder Brother, whilfl: it 
ftands indebted to You in fo great a Sum. Your 
Inquiries, Sir, in Natural Hiftory have been of great 
Advantage to my Defigns in painting and defcribing the 
Subjedt of them ; and 'tis to be hoped there is a more pub- 
lick one ftill to come ; that our Gentry, by the Example 
of Sir RoBEBT Abdy, will not content themfelves with 
a Pkafure they enjoy in a lefs degree than their Dogs, 
that of purfuing and killing the Game; but that by 
their Obfervations upon the Polity, Manners, or extraor- 
dinary Qualities belonging to thefe Creatures, they will 
exert a Knowledge above that of their Game -Keepers. 

Tis 



DEDICATION. 

'Tis certain, brute Animals were placed amongft us for 
.nobler Ends than juft to kill and eat, and to a Mind 
athirft for Knowledge, as all unprejudiced are. An Ac- 
quaintance with the A6lions, Views, and Defigns of thefe 
Creatures muft be an higher Gratification than ever they 
can yield in the Field or the Dining-Room ; this is a 
Truth You have reminded our Gentry of, and offered 
them a fair Pattern to copy after. Your Name, Sir, 
will Hand firft in the Lift of thofe who Ihall think 
the Title of a Philofopher, no Abatement to that of a 
Gentleman, and for which, the V/orld is obliged to make 
You its publick Acknowledgments : ''Tis not in my Power 
to make You mine, for the many and great Favours 
You have conferred on me, otherwife than by this un- 
feigned Profeflion, how much I am, 



Honoured Sir, 



Tour moji Ohliged, 

and mofi Devoted 

Humhle Servant^ 



Eleazar Albino 



TO THE. 



R E A D E 





Have at length acquitted my feJf of the Pro- 
mife I made the Tuhlick of a Second Volume of 
my Natural Hiftory of Birds, and hope 'twill 
find that favourahle Reception the former met 
with among the Curious. I can affure them 
1 have not been wanting in my Care and Application in the 
Taintings^ all the Drawings having heen taken from the 
Suh]€&s themfelveSy and the Dejcriptions agreeable thereto. 
The Learned have been long fenfihle how defeBive De^ 
fcriptions are towards a Natural Hijtory of the Animal and 
Vegetable World without Figures, which when in proper 
Colour give us a Tleafure, and certainly next to a View of 
the Things themjelves. I have in this Work been parti- 
cularly indujirious to .procure all the Engliili Birds I 
could by my own, or the Interefi of my Friends-. From the 
Time I undertook my Natural Hiftory of Infe(51:s, / had 
an Ambition of making all imaginable Progrefs in painting 
the natural Produ&s of this Ifiandj and have now an Hif- 
tory of an hundred and eighty different,. Spiders in their pra- 
per Colours ready to be publifhed... 

■m To 



To the READER. 

To fee an univerjal Natural Hijiory of Great Britain 
complec^t is what exceeds our higheji Expectation -, as what 
can never be execute d^ hut by the Labour of a great many 
Pencils fupported by the Munificence of a Prince^ with a 
Curiofity of feeing his Cabinets Jlored with the FortraBs of 
the Animals and Vegetables Nature has placed under his 
Dominion : thefe would be attended with a Pleafufe peculiar 
to themj elves, as they would represent Originals fubjtjiing to 
the I at eft Generations ; for Nature is fo uniform in the Struc^ 
ture of the whole Species, that the Piffure of an Individual will, 
to an human Eye, at leaji jerve for a Reprefentation of any 
of the Species (the Sex only excepted.) Befides thefe are not 
liable to the Calamities the Originals oftheKingofFrsLncc's 
Models of his Towns were, whofe Beings might have been 
dejiroyed by a Marlborough and victorious Army ; whereas 
a Butterfly and Bird preferve their Species amidft the Ra- 
vages of a Kingdom, and th^ feeblejl Genus of Plants main- 
tain their Kind under the Feet of the Grand Signior'j 
Horfe. Such a Colle^ion perhaps would not boafl that Pomp 
and Gaiety a Gallery filled with Rarities feletled from the 
diftant Kingdoms of the PForld would do. However, thefe 
I mention feem to have a Claim to the Patronage of the Prince 
whofe Subjects they are, and to deferve his peculiar Study 
and Obfervation. 



THE 



THE 







S 



O F T H E 



SUBSCRIBERS- 



-A 



n T R Robert Abdy, Bart. 
O Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy, Barl. 

William Archer, E/q; 
Robert Antrobus, J. M. 



B 



ne Right Honouralle the Lord Burlington. 

Two Books. 
^e Right Honourable the Lord Bateman 
the Right Honourable the Lady Mary Booth 
Sir Samuel Barnadifton 
The Lady Catharine Bathurft 
Brook Bridges, Efq; 
Robert Briftow, Efq: 
William Berners, Efq; 
Serjeant Baines 
Mrs. Beffwick 
B. Baron, Engraver 
John Brotherton, Bookfeller 
John Brindley, Bookbinder to Her Majefty. 

Six Books 



The Right Honourable the Lady Elizabeth Comp- 

ton 
Vice Chamberlain Coke 
Henry Corneliflbn, Efqy 
John Cook, Efq; 
John Clarke, Bookfeller at the Royal Exchange 



D 

His Grace the Duke o/Devonfliirft 

Sir D.ircy Daws, Bart. 

John Dalbey, Efq; 

The Reverend Dr. Durham 

Jofeph Dandridge 

James Douglas, M. D, F. R. S^ 



E 



Sr^(? Right Honourable the Lord Chief Jufllfi 

Eyres 
Arthur Edwards of Grofvenor-flreet 



The Right Honourable the Lord Foley 
Sir John Fortefcue 
Sir Thomas Frankland 
Mr. Abraham Francia 



The Right Honourable the Lady Mary Gore 

Charles Goftlin, Efq; 

Ambrofe Godfrey Hanckwitz, Chymiji 

William Goopy 

Mrs. Goopy 

Mrs. Elizabeth Goopy 



H 



The Right Honourable the Lady Elizabeth Her- 
bert Tki 



The Names of the SUBSCRIBERS. 



'^e Right Homurahle the Lad-^ Hartford 

Sir James How, Bart. 

Charles Hedges, £/^i 

Mr- Hewer 

Mrs- Howard 

€olonel Hopkey 

Jacob Hubland, £/j'-; 

^be Homurahle Colonel Houghton 



'fhe Right Honourable the Ladj Hay 

Edward Jackfon, Efq; 

Charles Jarnegan, M. D. 

Erneft Auguftus Jagar, Efq; 

William Innys, Bookfeller. Two Books- 

K 

Thomas Knowlton, Gardiner 

L 

Itbe Right Honourable the Lord Lovet. 

Sir Thomas Lowther, Kt. 

Ihe Honourable Anthony Lowther 

William Legrand, Efqy 

Mri._ Helena Legrand 

ChsJfles Long, Effx 

Samuel Long, Ejqs 

Tames Lemmon 

Johan Henry Linck, Apothecary at Leipfick 



M 



Sir Henry Maynard 
Richard Mead, M. D. F. R. S. 
Mr. John Maud, Chymijl 
William Meadows, Bookfeller 
'The Reverend Samuel Madden 
John Marlhal, Maker of Optxck-Glajfes to His 
Majejly at the Archimedes in Ludgate-fireet 

N 

The Right Honouralle the Lord Vifcount Nuton 

John Nicholas, Efq; 

William Nicholas, Efq; 

"Dr. Cafpar Neuman, Chynijl to the King of PruSia. 



Q 



The Right Honourable the Earl of Oxford. 
Books 



Two 



Nathaniel Oldham, Efq; 

P 

The Right Honourable John Lord Percival 
The Right Honourable the Lord Petre 
William Peck, Efq; 
Nathaniel Primate, Efq; 
P. Peirfon, Efqi 

R 

The Lady Ann Rufliout 

John Rich, Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Richardfon, Apothecary.. 

Thomas Robe, Efq; 

The Reverend Dr. Rundle 



Sir Edward Smith, Bart. 

The Right Honourable the Lady St. John 

Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. M. D. F. R. Sj 

John Stanhope, Efq; 

Edward Southwell, Efqi 

Mrs. Sharp 

Albertus Seba of Amfterdam 

Alexander Seba 

William Sherard, LL. D. F. R. S. 

Dr. Johan Juftus Stahl at Berlin 



The Right Honourable Sackville Earl of Thanet 
The Right Honourable the LordTyrconneX 
The Right Honourable Thomas Lord Trevor 
The Right Honourable the Lady Trevor 
The Honourable Grace Thynn 
Chomley Turner, Efq; 
George Thomberrow, Efq; 
Par. Thoroughgood, Efq; 

tr 

Abraham Vandenhoeck and Comp. 

W 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Wilmington: 
The Right Honourable James Earl of Walgravfr 
Watkins Williams Wynn, Efq;, 
John Ward, Efq; 
John Willcox, Bookfelkit 




N/jf{(ai /i{ti^{/ /ca iiufc 



2 /ic (ro-ld^y? IEo^lc 



The Golden Eagle. Aquila Fulva, feu Aurea. 

Numb. I. 

ITS Weight was twelve Pounds 5 its length from the Tip or Point of the Beak to 
the End of the Tail, three Foot and nine Inches; the Breadth, when the 
Wings extended , were fix Foot ; the Bill was four Inches, the hooked part alone 
hung down beyond the lower Chap a full Inch ; the Point was blacker ; the reft 
of the Bill of a Horn Colour, inclining to a cinereous or blewifh: The Tongue 
was broad, round, and blunt at the Tip, towards the Root on both Sides armed with 
two hooked, horned Appendices, tied down in the Middle to the lower Mandible 
by a thin Membrane: The Palate perforate in the Middle; the lower Chap of the 
Bill channelled ; the Edges whereof ftanding up on both Sides are received in the 
upper. 

The Membrane which arifing from the Forehead, is extended beyond the Noftrils, 
and likewife the Borders of the Bridle or Corners of the Mouth are yellow : The 
Feathers of the Neck are rigid and ferrugineous : A certain thick Tunicle, flretched 
forth from below upwards, covered the Eye in Nidation; this Membrane is called in 
Latin Periophthalmiiim--, two Eye-Lids, one above, the other beneath, covered the Eye, 
although the lower alone, extended upwards, was fufficient to cover the whole Eye : 
The Region of the Eye-Brows was very eminent, like that prominent Part of the 
Roofs of Houfes, called the Eaves, under which the Eyes lay hid, as it were funk in 
a deep Cavity ; the Eyes were of a fiery Splendour, fhiuing forth in a pale Blew ; the 
Pupil was of a deep Black. It is very admirable to obferve what Care Natiu-e hath taken, 
and what Provifion fhe hath made for the Confervation of the Eyes, than which, 
there is no Parr in this Animal more excellent; for not being content with one Tegu- 
ment, as is ufual in other Animals, Ihe Icemeth to have framed four feveral Lids or 
Covers for them. The Teriophthalmiitm, or Membrane for Nidation is the fame 
thing, and affords the fame ufe to them that the Eye-Lids do to a Man. Befides which 
Nature hath fuperadded two other Eye-Lids, and of thefe lower fo large, that they 
alone fuffice to cover and prcferve the Eyes. The Colour of the Wings and Tail is 
dusky, and fo much the darker as the Feathers are bigger ; the Colour of the refl: of 
the fmall Feathers of the whole Body is a dark Ferrugineous or Chefnut Colour, mixed 
here and there with a yellowifh Caft. The Legs were feathered below the Knees ; the 
Legs and Feet were yellowiih; the Talons very large and black ; he was young and 
very tame : I kept him in a Basket-Cage, made on purpofe for him, for fome time, 
and fed him with the Guts and Heads of Fowls, the laft of which he was very fond 
of, and fometimes a young Cat, which he would feize with his Talons, and with 
his Beak break her Skull, killing her immediately, after which he would divert him- 
felf with pulling off her Furr for fome time and then eat her. 



B The 



( 2) 

The Black Eagle, Aquila Valeria. 

Numb. II. 

THIS Bird was fomewhat lefs than the common Eagle ; 
its Bill of a blewilh Horn-Colour; the Sear or Skin 
covering the Bafe redilli ; the Irides Hazel-Coloured ; the 
Eye-Brows white: The whole Bird was of a dark ferrugi- 
neous Colour inclining to black. 

The Legs were Ihort, and covered with long Feathers, 
fcarce half an Inch remaining bare ; that and the Feet 
covered with hard, dusky, yellow Scales ; the Talons long 
and black. It is a Bird of great Strength and Valour, 
and continually feeking to deftroy Hares, delighting in 
their Flefh rather than that of Birds. 

This Bird I drew from the Colle61:ion of Sir Thomas 
Lowther, who w^as pleafed to let me draw fevei-al fine 
Birds out of the fame Colledion. 3 




The 




_/%e UMcA^ -EofU. 



3 




'. /i^ Jj aiii.- 



C fu/ic/(/2£ JL '^(//y 



( 3 ) 
The Vulturine Eagle, 

Numb. III. 

THIS Bird was as large as the common Eagle ; the 
Top of the Head and Neck were bald or covered 
with a whitiih Down ; the Beak black and ftreight almofh 
to the Middle, toward the Point bowed into a remark- 
able Hook, as in the common Vulture : The Chin and 
Side of the Face round the Eyes covered with a dusky 
or ferrugineous coloured Down; the Irides of the Eyes 
yellow, the Pupil black : The Bread: and Belly of a pale 
Cream Colour, fpotted with oblong dusky Spots^: The 
Back and covert Feathers of the Wings redifli brown ; the 
quill Feathers and tail black ; the Legs and upper Side of 
the Feet lead Colour, the under fide light Brown; the 
Talons large, hooked and black. This I had out of the 
CoUedtion of Sir Thomas Lowthen 




The 



\ U ) 

The ff^arwovwen, or Indian Vulture. 

Numb. IV. 

THIS Bird I faw at the George Tavern at Chari7ig-Crofs, with 
the Cajfowares ; it was almoft as big as an Eagle ; the top of its 
Head and Neck of a Flefh Colour and bare of Feathers ; the fides 
of the Face, Chin, and Back Part of the Head were of a dark brown 
Colour ; the Bill long and hooked at the End, of a Red or Saffron Co- 
lour, with a broad Stripe of Lead Colour in the Middle round the upper 
and under Mandible; on the Bafe of its Bill grew two broad flat fcolloped 
Caruncles of an Orange Colour. The Irides of the Eyes white, circled 
round with Scarlet; the Ruff was thick fet with foft long downy Fea- 
thers of an Afh Colour; the Back and covert Feathers of the Wings were 
of a pale buff Colour, the quill Feathers black ; the Craw was of a flefh 
Colour, and bare of Feathers hanging down like a Bag on the Breaft : 
the Breaft, Belly and Thighs white; the Tail was compofed of twelve 
white Feathers tipt almoft half way with black. 

The Legs and Feet were of a yellowifli flefli Colour ; the Claws black : 
its Food was raw Flefh. Thofe who were his Keepers called him the 
King of the F'awowsy or King of the Vultures. He was brought by a 
Dutch Ship from P alla7npank in the Eaji-hidies. I believe it to be fome- 
what like that Bird which Mr. Willoughby defcribes by the Name of 
Uruha-y or the Brafil Vulture. Pag' 6 8 . of his Oi'-nithology, 




7% 



oe 



y Lajir Ti/a 



/ir'n-'^u^t'r/?^f//? 




L'cc/acn^/it/Li . 



_77z£ 7^'a/"/i'i'rf^t',/i . 



s 




Iy;gra/y, 



toi 



Z^/vc. H-in^ (ai-^ -Mcn-Iin/y ^f 



(5 ) 
The Ring-Tail. Pygargus. 

Numb. V. 

*~f H E Male is called the Henharrier, it weighed feventeen Ounces and an half; the length, from the Point 
i. of the Beak to the End of the Tail, was twenty two Inches; its breadth, when the Wings were extended 
was three Feet feven Inches ; the Mouth an Inch and a half long. From the hind Part of the Head round 
the Ears to the Chin, a Ring or Wreath of Featliers Handing up, having their Middle dusky, and their Edo-es of 
a redifh White, encompafles the Head as it were a Crown; from this Wreath hangs down a naked Skin cover- 
ing the Ears; the Back is of a dark ferrugineous Colour ; the Edges of the Neck Feathers redifh ; in the Crown 
of the Head lefs red ; the Bottoms of the Feathers in the Hind-Part of the Head whitifh ; above and under the 
Eyes were white Feathers ; the Belly and Bread: of a reddifli Yellow marked with long dusky Spots, tending 
downward along the Shafts of the Feathers; the Middle of the Throat of a dusky or dark ferrugineous' Colour - 
the Edges of the Feathers being red; the Rump hatli fome white Feathers with two or three Spots of a dark 
redifh Yellow. 

The Number of Flag-Feathers in each Wing was twenty-four ; the exteriour Webs were of the fame Colour 
of the Back, the interiour being variegated with tranfverfe black and whit; Streaks alternately fituate : In the 
exteriour and greater Feathers, the white Strokes are bigger and broader ; in the interior and leHer, the black 
in the inmofl whole Web is dusky, the white by degrees growing darker and darker, till at laft it comes to be 
wholly brown or dusky ; the Tips of the exteriour Feathers in the fecond Row are white, of the interiour red - 
the reft of tliem being of the fame Colour with the Back. ' * 

The Tail is ten Inches long, made up of twelve Feathers; the Tips whereof are of a redifh yellow to 
which fucceed alternately redifh and black Bars, the black being much the broader ; in the two middle Feathers 
the Red do altogether disappear, the Feathers being wholly black. * 

The yellow Skin covers the upper Chap, reaching from the Root of the Bill beyond the Noftrils elfe the 
Bill is black, hooked and prominent; the lower Mandible ftreight, the Mouth wide when gapino- ; In the Pa- 
late is a Cavity equal to the Tongue; the Tongue broad, flefhy, and undivided, both Tongue' and Palate 
black; the Angle of the lower Chap, as in other Birds of this Kind, is round; the Border of the Eye-lids round 
likewife ; the Eyes yellow. 

The Feet were yellow, the Talons black ; the outmoft Toe, for fome Space from the Divarication, is Joined 
to the middlemoft by an intervening Membrane ; the middle Toe longeft, the inmoft iliortefl, but the Claw of 
the outmoft leaft : The Legs are long and very flender, beyond the Proportion of other Hawks ; it hath a great 
Craw ; fmall, round, tumid, blind Guts ; a large Gorge, in which when opened were Feathers and Bones 
of Birds; a Gall Joined to the Liver; the Eggs were befmeared over with Red, the White here and there ap- 
pearing underneath it. 

The Male or Tarcel of this kind differs both in Magnitude and Colour ; the Head, Neck and Back are 
of an Afh Colour, like ^?iloiz Ring- Dove; the long Feathers growing on the Shoulders are fomewhat 
dusky ; the Rump not fo white as in the Female ; the Breafl white with tranfverfe dusky Spots ; the two mid- 
dlemoft Feathers of the Tail cinereous, from the middle to the outmoft, die Colour is more lanonid and dilute 
inclining to white ; all but the middle ones marked with tranfverfe blackifh Bars : The exteriour^Flag-Feathers 
of the Wings are black, the Tipskeing Afh-coloured, and the Bottoms white, the out- fide of the reft is cinereous 
only their inner Limbs or Borders white ; the covert Feathers of the upper Side of the Wings cinereous of the 
nether Side white ; the Shafts of the interiour being black ; the firft Row of the covert Feathers of the infide of 
the Wing have tranfverfe dusky Spots: In all other Refpedts it agrees with tlie Female, the Difference of the 
5ex omitted. 



"iSft^ 




n» 



(6) 

The Falcon Gentle. 

Numb. VI. 

THIS Bird is fomewhat lefs than the Peregrine Falcon : The Crown 
of the Head flat and comprefTed ; the Beak thick of a blewifh lead 
Colour bending downwards with a fharp Hook ; the Eyes large and of 
a lovely black; the Irides yellow: The Top and Sides of the Head of a 
■dusky Brown fpotted with black ; the Throat and Sides of the Neck of 
a dilute Yellow which incompafles it like a Collar; from the Corners of 
the Mouth on each {ide a black Line was drawn almoft to the Middle 
of the Throat or Gullet ^ the Breaft, Belly and Thighs of a gold Yel- 
low, ftained with Marks of Black drawn downwards ; the Back, Wings, 
and upper Side of the Tail of a dark Brown inclining to black; the 
Wings were fharp pointed, and when clofed reached to the End of the. 
Train. 

The Legs and Feet yellow, and covered with Scales ; the Thighs long; 
the Shanks fhort; the Toes flender; the Talons black and very fharp. 

It flies and preys upon Gzt^t^ Ducks, and other Water- Fowl. I was 
credibly informed by Sir Michael Newton, that this Bird was the true 
Falcon Gentle* 




Tht 







> 






J'/zu/cavt ae/tfy^ . 






%;jr'" . 



7 




J. fLC- X^anner^^ 



( 7 ) 

The Lanneret. 

Numb. VII. 

THIS Bird is fomcwhat lefs than the Falcon Gentle^ and is diftin- 
guiihed from other Hawks by thefe marks, his Beak, Legs and Feet 
are blewifh or Lead Colour ; his Breaft Feathers parti-coloured of Black 
and White, the black Marks not croffing the Feathers, but drawn long 
ways down the Middle of them contrary to what they are in Falcons 

The Eyes are large, the Irides yellow, over each Eye is a white Line 
reaching round the Fore-part of the Head ; the Top of the Crown, up- 
per Side of the Neck, Back, and covert Feathers of the Wings are of a 
dusky Brown ; the Quill-Feathers black, - the under Side of the Wings 
dusky with fmall round whitifh Spots like Pieces of Money, difperfed 
through the Superficies. 

It hath a thick and fhort Neck ; the Legs fhorter than the Reft of 
the Falcon Kind. 

It feems to be called Lanarius a laniando, i. e. from tearing. It is of a 
gentle Nature, of a docile and tradable Difpofition fas Bellonius writes) 
very fit for all Sorts of Game, as well Water-Fowl, as land ; for it catches 
not only Pies, Quails, Partridges, Crows, Pheafants, &'c. but alfo Ducks, 
yea and Cranes too, being trained up thereto by human Induftry : They 
abide all the Year in France, being feen there as well in Winter, as in 
Summer, contrary to the Manner of other rapacious Birds. 




Tie 



■ ( s ) 

The Gojhawk Accipiter Palumbarius. 

Numb. VIII. 

IT is fomewhat bigger than the common Buzzard : 
its Head, Neck, Back, and upper Side of the Wings of 
a dark, dusky Brown or Buzzard Colour: The whole 
Bread and Belly white with tranfverfe black Lines (land- 
ing very thick ; the Thighs in the Cock are covered 
with rediili Feathers having black Lines in the Middle 
down the Shaft ; the Legs and Feet are yellow ; the Ta- 
lons black. 

The Beak blewifli, the Sear of a yellowilh Green ; the 
Wings when clofed fall lliort of the End of the Train, 
by which Note alone, and its Bignefs, it is fufficiently di- 
ftinguillied from all other Hawks, 

The Train is of a dun Colour, with black Bars Hand- 
ing at a good Diftance from each other. 

It takes not only Partridges and Pheafants^ but alfo 
greater Fowls, as Geeje and Cranes, fometimes alfo it 
catches Conies. 




The 



8 




^ccc/ie/ii/^ Fa/u/Tt/ti/tiiJ 



jTAe^ ^o^/ia/irA, . 



3 




T/ic a/ieatIfc^r/1 On^l CocA:- 



(9) 

The Great Horn-Owl, or Eagle-Owl Bubo. 

Numb. IX. 

THIS Bird was as big as an Eagk-j its Head large, in Shape and 
Bignefs refembling a Cat's; above each Ear, which were large, 
ftuck out a Bunch of parti-coloured Feathers about three Inches long re- 
prefenting Ears or Horns : The Eyes vvere large, the Irides of a lovely 
golden or faffron Colour ; the Pupil of a fhining Black ; the Bill fhort, 
black, and hooked ', the Feathers about the Eyes and Face white incir- 
cled with Black ; the Top of the Head, Back, and upper Side of the 
Tail of a dusky ferrugineous Colour variegated with black and yellowifh 
Spots ; the Breaft, Belly, and Thighs redilh Yellow marked with long 
black Spots, crolTed with dusky horizontal Lines promifcuoufly here and 
there in no Order; the quill and covert Feathers of the Wings were va- 
riegated with redilh, brown, black, and light yellow Spots ; the under 
Side of the Tail more dilute, with fine broad dufky Bars ; its Legs and 
Feet feathered down to the Claws, which were black, hooked, and very 
{harp. 

This Bird I was obliged to Sir Thomas Lowther for ; the Hen, which 
I faw at Sir Huns Sloam'^-, is more darker all over the Body, Wings, and 
Tail: They are faid to build upon high and inacceflible Rocks; it preys 
not only on Rats, Mice, and fmall Birds, but alfo on Hares and Ralf 
bets, like the Eagle, no Animal gathering fo much Prey by Night as 
this Owl. 



^^^^!&: 
.^^ 



D The 



( 10 ) 

The Horn Owl. Otus five Afio.^ 

Numb. X. 

TTS Weight was about ten Ounces ,• its Length from the Point of the 
-■■ Bill, to the End of the Tail was fourteen Inches ; its Breadth when 
the Wings were extended three Feet four Inches; the Bill was black; 
from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth, one Inch and half a quar- 
ter; the Tongue flefhy and a Httle divit^prl • the Irides of the Eyes of a 
lovely Yellow ; the Corners of the Ears large ; the Face ie encompaffed 
with a double Row of Feathers, the exteriour variegated with fmall 
white, black, and red Lines; the interiour under the Eyes redifh: The 
Feathers which cover the Breafl and Belly are redifh, the middle Part 
black, encompaffed with Red and Yellow, the Bottom of each white, 
the Feathers on the Thighs yellowilh, with a Line and tranfverfe Bars of 
a dark Brown; the beam Feathers of the Wings are regularly fpotted 
with White and dark Brown ; the Reft of the covert Feathers are parti- 
coloured, of a yellowifh Brown with dusky Spots ; the Edges and Bot- 
toms of the Feathers whitifh ; the Top of the Head and Back of the 
fame Colour with tranfverfe Lines of Black; the Horns were above an 
Inch long, of a yellowifh White with fix indented tranfverfe Lines of 
Black ; the Eyebrows redifh Brown. 

The Tail was made up of twelve Feathers fix Inches long; the exteriour 
being fhorteft, and the reft in Order to the middlemoft ; fo that when 
Ipread it was terminated in a circular Circumference, croffed with fix or 
feven Bars of black, but narrower than in other Birds of this Kind, the inter- 
mediate Spaces above were of an Afh-colour, below of a pale Yellow. 

The Legs are feathered down to the Feet, which are of a Light-brown; 
the Claws black ; that of the middle Toe on the infide thinned into an 
Edge ; the outermoft of the Fore-Toes may be turned backwards, as in 
other Oivls. It had a large Gall ; the Guts were twenty Inches long; the 
b]md Guts two Inches and a quarter, longer and more tumid than in 
other carnivorous Birds; in the Stomach was found Bones and Fur of 
Mice. This Bird I faw at Sir He7iry Herns, who fhot it on Enjield Chafe ; 
I alfo faw the fame Bird in the Collection of Sir iTjofnas Loivther, Baronet. 
Thefe Birds are found in mountainous and unfrequented Places, not 
delighting in the lower and plain Countries. 

Tee 



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( II ) 

The common Barn-Owl^ or White-Owl Aluco minor. 

Numb. XL 

IT S Weight was nine Ounces and an half 5 Length from the Point of the Beak to 
the End of the Tail fifteen Inches i Breadth, when the Wings were extended, three 
Feet ; the Bill white, hooked at the End, an Inch long ; the Tongue divided at the 
Tip ; the Noftrils oblong, a Circle or Wreath of white, foft, downy Feathers en- 
compaffed with yellow ones, beginning from the Noftrils on each Side, paffed round 
the Eyes and under the Chin, fomewhat refembling a Hood, fo that the Eyes were 
funk in the middle of thefe Feathers, as it were in the Bottom of a Pit or Valley ; 
at the interiour Angle of each Eye, the lower Parts of thefe Feathers were of a tawny 
Colour 5 the Ears were covered with a Valve, which ariles near the Eye and falls 
backwards; the interiour Circle we mentioned of white downy Feathers pafled juft 
over this Valve, fo that Part of them grow out of it. 

The Breaft, Belly, and covert Feathers of the inlide of the Wings were white, 
marked with a few quadrangular dark Spots : The Head, Neck, and Back, as far as the 
prime Feathers of the Wings, varioufly and of all Night-Birds moft elegantly coloured, 
the Feathers towards the Tips were waved with fmall whitifh and blackifli Lines, re- 
fembling a grey Colour; but about the Shafts of each Feather there was as it were a 
Bed or Row of black and white Spots, iituate longways, made up in fome of two 
white and two black Spots, in fome of three of each Colour, in fome of but one, 
or elfe the whole Plumage was of a dilute tawny or orange Colour, which fame 
Colour was alfo the Ground in the Wings and Tail. 

The Mafter-Feathers in each Wing were in Number twenty four, whereof the 
greater have four tranfverfe blackilh Bars. [In thefe Bars in the exteriour Vane of the 
Feather there is alfo a White mingled with the Black, which makes an Appearance 
of a grey Spot,] the intermediate Spaces are fulvous, and powder'd with fmall black 
Specks; the Tips of thefe Feathers incline more to an Afli-Colour; the Wings when 
fhut up extend full as far as the Tail End ; in the exteriour Vanes of the firft or 
outmoft Feather of each Wing, the Ends of the Pinnula^ arc not contiguous one to 
another, but ftand at a diftance like the Teeth of a fine Comb. 

The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, of the fame. Colour with the Wings, hav- 
ing four tranfverfe black Bars, four Inches and a half long ; the interiour Margins of 
the Feathers both of the Wings and Tail are white. 

The Legs are covered with a thick Down to the Feet, but the Toes are only 
hairy, the Hairs alfo thin fet; the Claw of the middle Toe is ferrate on the infide as 
in the Herons, but not fo manifeftly ; it hath two Toes before and two backwards. 

The Guts v/ere eighteen Inches long, the blind Guts but two Inches; it had a large 
Gall ; its Eggs were white. 

I found this Owl in a Field near JVdtham-Abby in the dusk of the Evening, fly- 
ing up and down, and now and then catching at the Grafs : I defired my Son 
who was with me to fhoot him, and when we differed hin^ 1 found in iiis Stomach 
feveral of the v/hite Grafs-Moths and other Infefts- 



C 12 ) 

The Little-Owl ,No6lua. 

Numb. XII. 

IT was about the Bignefs of a Blackbird ; it weighed three Ounces j its Length 
from the Tip of the Beak to the End of the Tail, was leven Inches and a half; 
when the Wings were extended 'twas fourteen Inches : its Bill was like that of other 
Owls i the Tongue a little divided, as in the reft of this Tribe ; the Palate below black, 
having a wide or gaping Cleft, and below it a round Hole ; the Noftrils oblong; the 
Ears great ; the Eyes leflfer than in otliei; Owls. 

The Wreath or Circle of Feathers encompafling the Face, beyond the Ears lefs 
and lefs difcernable ; the upper Part of the body was of a dark Brown, with a Mixture 
of red, having tranfverfe white Spots, intermixed with Lines and fmall Specks of 
black; the Tail was two Inches long, made up of twelve Feathers exadly equal, 
having fix whitifh tranfverfe Bars. 

The Feathers about the Ears were more variegated with black and white ; the Chin 
and Belly of a yellowifh white ; the Breaft marked with long dusky Spots inclofed 
^with a Border of white. 

The Number of Beam-Feathers in each Wing was twenty two, the firft of which 
was fhorter by half an Inch than the fecond, third, and fourth, which were of equal 
Length, the fifth equal to the firft j then fliortening by degrees to the eleventh, 
then increafing in Length to the nineteenth, then dccrcafing again, the twenty fecond 
being the fhorteft of all ; both inner and outer Webs were fpotted with white Spots. 

It was feathered down to the Claws ; the Feet were of a dark yellow ; the Claws 
blackilh : It had two Fore-Toes and two back-Toes ; the Talons black ; the inner Side 
of the middle Talon is thinned into an Edge. 

It hath a great Gall ; the Length of the Guts was ten Inches 5 of the blind Guts, 
one Inch and a quarter. 

This Bird was taken on the Coaft of Ujhant by Captain Boreman, it having loft 
its Way at Sea, lighting on the Maft of the Ship, was fo tired that it fuffered it felf 
to be taken without any Rcfiftance, and was preferved and brought home by him, and 
given to me by his Brother Thomas Boreman, Bookfeller on Liidgate-Htll. 




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( 13 ) 
The greater Butcher-Bird. Lanius cinereus major. 

Numb. XIII. 

IT is equal in Bignefs to the common Blackbird; its Weight is three Ounces; its 
Length from the Bill end to the Tail end is ten Inches and a half; its breadth 
when the Wings are extended, fourteen Inches : The Bill from the Tip to the Angles 
of the Mouth, an Inch long, black, hooked at the End, and furnifhed with an Angle 
or Tooth on each Side, like that of the Keftrel, Sparrow-Hawk, and leffer Birds of 
this Kind : The Tongue is flit or forked at the End and rough 5 in the Palate is a 
Fiflure or Cleft, and above the Cleft a hollow Cavity equal to the Tongue; the Nof- 
trils are round, about which grow black ftiff Hairs or Briftles; from the Corners of the 
Mouth, on each Side through the Eyes, to the hind Part of the Head is drawn a black 
Stroak; the Head, Back, and Rump are afh-coloured ; the Chin and Belly white. 

It hath in each Wing eighteen prime Feathers ; the Tips of all which excepting the 
four outmoft, are white ; the lecond and third have alfo their exteriour Edges white ; 
moreover, the firft or outmoft Feather begins to be white at the Bottom; all the 
reft in Order as far as to the tenth, the white Part increafeth, fo that more than the 
half of the tenth Feather is white ; from the tenth, in the following Feathers, the white 
diminifiies again, yet in their interiour Edges it runs up to the Top ; in the laft, that 
is thofe next to the Body it fails quite, elfe both the beam Feathers and the firft Ro\v 
of covert Feathers are black : The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, of which the 
middlemoft are the longeft, by Meafure four Inches and a quarter ; the reft in Ordec 
fhorter to the two outmoft, which are but three Inches and a half, the outmoft Feathers 
are all over white, the middlemoft have only their Tips white, the reft of the Feathers 
being black ; in the intermediate Feathers the black Part gradually diminilheth to the 
outmoft ; whence (faith Aldrovandus) when it flies the white Part of the Tail fhews 
like a Crefcent. 

The Legs and Feet are black j the outmoft Toe at the Bottom is joined to the 
middlemoft. 

The Tefticles are round and little, one that was difteded had in the Stomach, Cat- 
terpillars. Beetles, and Grajhoppers: It will alfo fet upon and kill, not only Imall 
Birds, fuch as Finches and Wrens; but alfo Thntjhes, &c. It is a Bird of Paflage, 
coming to us in Spring from Germatiy, France, &c. This Bird I received from my 
honoured and good Friend Sir Robert Abdy. 






7he 



( 14) 

The leffer Butcher-Bird, Lanius tertius. 

Numb. XIV, XV. 

IT weighed two Ounces and a half} from the Tip'of the Bill to the End of the Tail 
'twas feven Inches and a half long ; from the Tip of one Wing to the Tip of the 
other when extended 'twas twelve Inches and a half broad, 

The Bill was an Inch long, black and ftrong ; the Tip of the upper Chap hooked ; 
near the hooked Part furnifhed with two angular Appendices, over hanging the lower 
Chap when the Mouth is fhut, it having no Dents or Cavities to receive thefe Ap- 
pendices, wherein the Bill of this Bird differs from that of the Hobby or Keftrels the 
Jvdouth within yellow; the Cleft of the Palate rough; the Tongue divided into many 
Filaments; the Noftrils round, about the Noftrils and Corners of the Mouth grew ftiff 
black Hairs or Briftles ; the middle of the back, and lefler Rows of Feathers covering 
the upper Side of the Wing redilli or ferrugineous ; the Head and Rump cinereous j 
from the Corners of the Mouth through the Eyes a black Stroak is produced beyond 
the Ears; this black Line is terminated and divided from the Afh-Colour by another 
whitifh Line ; the lower Belly is white, as is alfo the Throat and Breaft. with a faint 
TTindure of red. 

There is in each Wing eighteen beam Feathers j the firft or outmoft very fhort and 
little, the third longeft of all j the Wings fhut much Ihorter than the Tail^ the 
greater Wing Feathers dusky; the exteriour Vanes of thofe next the Body being red^ 
the Edges of the middlemoft white ^ the Tail is three Inches long, compofed of 
twelve Feathers, of which the outmoft is fhortcft ; the reft on each Side in Order 
longer to the middlemoft, which are the longeft, and almoft wholly black ; of the 
next to thefe, the Bottoms or lower Parts are white, efpecially the interiour Web? 
of the four next on each Side, the lower half is white, as alfo the Tips^ of the out- 
moft, the exteriour Webs are wholly white. 

The Feet are black, the outmoft Toe joined at the bottom to the middlemoft j the 
Tefticles white and round ; the Gall large j the Guts eleven Inches long ; the blind 
Gut Ihort and little ; in the Stomach, when difleded, was found Flies and Beetles. 
They build their Neft of Grafs, Bents, and Feathers, in which they lay five or fix Eggs, 
pretty large and of an oblong Shape, almoft wholly white, except toward the blunter 
End J they are encompafied with a Circle of dark red, as it were a Coronet. This 
Bird was a Cock. 

The hen is a very fmall matter lefs than the Cock -, the Bill of a dusky cinereous 
Colour with a Dafh of red j the Top of the Head, Back, and prime Feathers of the 
Wings, of a dark rediih brown; the lefler Rows of covert Feathers are inclining to 
red ,• the Throat and Breaft of a dusky white with fome circular tranfverfe Lines of a 
dusky Colour, after the manner of the /i^'«^r/& ; the Belly and the Thighs are white^ 
the Legs and Feet of a pale redifti brown ; The Tail of the fame Colour of the Back, 
the under Part white. 



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( II ) 

The red headed Butcher-Bird, 

Numb. XVI. 

THIS Bird was of the fame Bignefs of the afli-co- 
loured Butcher-Bird \ the Top of the Head, and 
upper Part of the Neck was of a pale red, or ruffet ; the fore 
Part of the Head^ round the Eyes and Sides of the Neck, 
of a dusky brown, as was alfo the Back, Wings, and 
Tail, except a long white Mark on each Shoulder, and 
a large Spot of white on the lirft Row of covert Feathers 
of the Wings : The Bill for the Shape and Make like 
the others of this Kind, the Colour black ; the Noftrils 
fmall and round, a white line encompalling the upper 
Mandible at the Bafe. 

The Irides of the Eyes of a dirty white ; the Throat,"' 
Breaft, and Belly white • the Thighs of a light brownilh 
afh Colour. 

The Legs and Feet dusky; the Claws black ; this Bird 
I had out of the Colle6l:ion of Sir Thomas Lowther. 

Mr. W^tlloughby defcribes one killed near the River 
Rhine in Germany^ whofe Head was of a lovely red; a Line 
or white Space of the Figure of a ParaMa, encompaffed 
the Tail ; the interiour Space or Area therein contained 
being black : The eleven exteriour Quills were white 
from the Bottoms almoft to the middle; the Feet and 
Claws black. 



r/^r 



( i6) 

77?^- Mciccaw from Jamaica. ^ 

Numb. XVII. 

THIS Bird is the largeft of all the Parrot Kind ; from 
the Tip of its Bill to the End of the Tail thirty- 
Inches: its Bill was large and Semicircular, of an Afh- 
Colour, tipt with black ; the Irides of the Eyes yellow • 
the Skin about the Eyes bare of Feathers, and rough or 
rugged ; the whole Head, Breaft, and Belly of a moft 
beautiful fcarlet Colour, as was alfo the under Side of 
the Tail ; its upper Side blcAv ; the Wings were party- 
coloured; of blew and fcarlet, with fome Mixture of green 
in the blew Feathers on the upper Part of the Wing; 
the Legs dark Alli-Colour, with a Mixture of brown: 
This Bird is the Male, the Female being blew and yel- 
low: They are commonly brought from Jamaica, and ohter 
Parts of the fF^eJl-lndies, and bear a good Price, being 
commonly fold for ten Guineas. 




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(17) 

The Bracelet ^aroqueet from Eaft-Iadia. 

Numb. XVIII. 

THIS Bird is about three times as big as the fmall 
Green Paroqueet ; the Top of the Head was of a 
blueilh green ; the Cheeks were more dilute ; the Bill thick 
and hooked; the upper Mandible orange colour, the 
lower black ; the Irides of the Eyes of a lovely yellow, 
incircled with a dusky brown: It had a broad black 
line reaching from the lower Chap of the Bill towards 
the back Part of the Neck inclining downwards, and was 
met by a purple Line which encompalTes the back Part of 
the Head; the Breaft is of a pale rofe Colour: The Back, 
Wings, lower Part of the Belly and Thighs are of a yel- 
lowiih green Colour; the Tail is about eight Inches long, 
of the fame Colour of the Back and Wings ; the mid- 
dle Feathers being the longeft, and ending in a Point 
the Legs and Feet are of an afh-colour ; the Claws black. 
I faw this Bird at Mr. Bland's at the Ttger on Tower- 
Hilly amongft other curious Birds which were brought 
from the Eaji-Indies ; it fpoke very articulately feveral 
Words in the Portuguefe and Englijh Tongue. 




F The 



(i8) 

The Crown Bird, from Mexico^ 

Numb. XIX. 

THIS Bird was of the Bignefs of the Miffel-Bird; 
its Bill of a tawny flefh Colour, thick and Ihort 
after the Manner of the Grosheah ; the Irides of the Eyes 
of the fame Colour of the Bill, encompaffed with a Ring 
of fcarlet, above that a Line of black encompafling the 
fore Part and upper half of the Eye, then white, the 
white reaching from the Bill, beyond the Eye on the 
under Side, and about half way on the upper Side; it 
had a large Creft of green Feathers, which it could fet 
up or lay down at Pleafure; the Head, Neck, Back, 
Breaft, and Part of the Belly green ; the lower Part of 
the Belly and Thighs of a dusky brown Colour ; the 
firft four quill Feathers of the Wings fcarlet, the fourth 
having fine long white Marks in the exteriour Web; 
the reft of the quill feathers purple, as was alfo the Tail ; 
the covert and fcapular Feathers of the Wings purple, 
with a Mixture of green ; the Legs and Feet of a blue- 
iili lead Colour : This Bird I drew at Mr. Bland's on 
Tower-Hill, who called it the Crown Bird from Mexico, 






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( 19 ) 

The Raven. CorvuS 

Numb. XX. 

IT weighed two Pounds and two Ounces ; its Length from the Tip of the Bill to 
the End of the Tail, was two Foot and one Inch i its Breadth, when the Wings 
were extended, was four Foot and one Inch ; the Bill long, thick, fharp, and very 
black; the upper Chap fomething hooked, the lower ftreight; the Tongue broad, 
cleft at the Tip, rough and black underneath ; the Iris confifts of a double Circle ; 
the exteriour being of a light cinereous or afh-colour ; the interiour of a dark ci- 
nereous j black Hairs or Briftles bending from the Head downwards cover the Nof- 
tfils ; the Plumage is black all over the Body, having a blue Splendour or Glofs in 
the Tail and Wings , the Belly is fomething paler inclining to brown ; on the mid- 
dle of the Back grow only downy Feathers ; for the Back is covered with thofe 
long Feathers that fpring from the Shoulders, as in many other Birds : The Number 
of prime Feathers in each Wing is twenty, of which the firft is fliorter than the fe- 
cond, the fecond than the third, and that than the fourth, which is the longeft of 
all ; in all from the fixth to the eighteenth the Shaft extends further than the Vans, 
and ends in a Iharp Point j thefe are of fingular Ufe in Harpficords and Spinets. 

The Tail is about nine Inches long, made up of twelve Feathers j the exteriour be- 
ing gradually fomewhat fhorter than the interiour 

It hath large crooked Claws, efpecially thofe of the back Toes ^ the outmoft fore 
Toe is joined to the middlemoft from the Divarication to the firft Joint. 

The Liver is divided into two Lobes j it hath a large Gall flicking to the Guts j 
the Length of the Guts is forty three Inches j of the blind Guts one Inch. 

The Gullet below the Bill is dilated into a Bag, wherein Ihe brings meat to her 
Youngs the Stomach within is wrinkled. The Raven feeds not only on Fruits and 
Infefts, but upon the Carcaffes of Beafts, Birds, and Fifiies ^ and alfo will fet upon 
living Birds killing and devouring them. 

Ravens are found not only in one Part or Region of the World, but abound in 
all Countries; do eafily endure all Changes of Weather, fearing neither Heat nor 
Cold, enduring well to abide and live wherever there is plenty of Meat for them. 

They build in high Trees, or old Towers in the beginning oi March with us in En^- 
land^ and fometimes fooner : they lay four or five Eggs and fometimes fix, before 
they begin to fit j their Eggs are of a pale greenifli blue, full of black Spots and 
Lines. 



l%i 



( 20 ) 

The common or carrion Crow. Cornix. 

Numb. XXL. 

IT S Weight was one Pound five Ounces ; Length from the Tip of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail was nineteen Inches; its Breadth, when the Wings were ex- 
tended, three Foot four Inches ; the Bill ftrong, thick, ftreight ; from the Tip to the 
Angles of the Mouth, two Inches and almoft an half long ; the lower Mandible be- 
ing fomewhat fhorter; the Tongue cleft, and as it were jagged or torn; the Eyes 
large having the Irides of a hazel Colour ; the Noftrils round, covered with black 
Briftles rcfleded towards the End of the Bill ; rhe Plumage of the whole Body is 
black ; the beam leathers in each Wing are in Number twenty ; whereof the firfl is 
ihorter than the fecond, the fecond than the third, that than the fourth, which is 
the longeft of all, being by Meafure ten Inches and three quarters ; the inner of 
thefe Feathers; end in Iharp Points. 

The Tail was feven Inches and a half long, compofcd of twelve Feathers of equal 
Length; the Legs, and Feet black j the Claws black and ftrong; the outmoft fore Toe 
is joined to the middle one, from the bottom as far as the firft Joint. 

The Liver is divided into two Lobes, of which the right is the biggefl: : It hath 
a large Gall, which empties it felf by a double Channel into the Guts ; the Muf- 
clcs of the Stomach are but fmall j the Guts have many Revolutions ; the blind 
Gut no more than half an Inch long. 

This Bird delights to feed upon Carrion, that is the CarcafTes of dead Animals 
when they begin to putrify, neither doth it feed only upon Carrion, but alfo ^zt upon, 
kill, and devour living Birds, in like manner as the Raven j it alfo eats Grain and 
all forts of In feds in England at leaft, for beyond Seas, they fay, it meddles with 
no Kind of Grain, 

They build on high Trees, and lay four or five Eggs at a Time. They are noi- 
fome to Lambs new yeaned if they be weak and feeble, firft picking out their Eyes; 
they are faid to have a very fagacious Scent, which makes them difficult to be Ihot, 
they fmelling the Gunpowder at a great Diftance. 

The Liver and Heart of the Crow is a moft excellent remedy for the Falling 
Sicknefs, being dryed and given in Powder to the Quantity of a Scruple, with black 
cherry Water, fwcetned with Syrup of Pionies, at the Full and New Moon, three 
Days before and three Days after ^ I was credibly informed by the Lady Trevor, 
of the Cure of a Gentlewoman in my Lord's Family, which had the falling Sicknefs 
fome Years, and was cured with this Remedy. 



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XA/L Jun^ 



( 21 ) 

The Rook, Cornix frugilego. 

Numb. XXII. 

IT S Weight was one Pound and three Ounces ; Length from the Tip of tht Bill 
to the End of the Tail was twenty Inches ; the Diftance between the Wings 
when extended thirty eight Inches} it hath no Craw, but inftead thereof the 
Gullet below the Bill is dilated into a kind of Bag, wherein it brings Meat to feed its 
Young. 

In the old ones of this Sort the leathers about the Root of the Bill as far as the 
Eyes are worn off, by often thrufl:ing the Bill into the Ground, to fetch out Wo ms 
and other Infeds j fo that the Fiefh thereabouts is bare, and appears of a whitiih Co- 
lour, by which Note it is to be diftinguifhed from the common Crow. 

It differs alfo from the Crows, fecondly, in that it is fomewhat bigger ; thirdly,' 
in the purple Splendour or Glofs of its Feathers . Fourthly, In that it is gregarious, 
both flying and breeding in Companies. 

The Number of beam Feathers in each Wing is twenty, of which the fourth is 
the longeft, being by Mcafurc ten Inches and a quarter ; the Shafts of the middle 
Wing-Feathers end in Briftles or Spines ; the Tail is feven Inches and a half long, 
made up of twelve Feathers j the exteriour whereof are a little fhorter than the mid- 
dle ones. 

The Bill, from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth, is two Inches and a half 
long; the Noftrils rounds the Tongue black, horny, and cloven at the Endj the 
hind Toe hath a large ftrong Clawj the outmoft fore Toe is joined to the middle- 
moft, as in the Crow. 

It hath a large Gallj Ihort blind Guts like the Crow of about half an Inch long^ 
the Stomach is great and mufculous, as in granivorous Birds ^ the Guts wide and va- 
rioufly reflefted. They are moft greedy of Corn; yet feed alfo on .'Earth -TVormSy 
and other Infeds, refraining from Garbage and Carrion: They build many together 
upon high Trees about Gentlemen's Houfes, w^ho are much delighted with the Noife 
they make in breeding Time : Both Cock and Hen fit by turns ; their Eggs are like 
the Crows, but leffer, fpotted with greater Spots, efpecially about the blunt End. 

When the Rooks build, one of the Pair fits always by to watch the Neft till it is fi- 
nifhed, whilft the other goes about to fetch Materials, elfe if both go and leave the Neft 
unfiniflied (as fometimes they venture to do) their Fellow-Rooks , 'ere they return 
again, will have robbed and carried to their feveral Nefts all their Sticks, and what- 
ever elfe they had got together. Hence perhaps, the Word Rooking, with us, is 
afed for cheating or abufing. 

Thefe Birds are noifome to the Corn and Grain, fo that the Husbandmen are forced 
to employ Children with Hooting, Crackers, and Rattles of Metal, and finally with 
throwing of Stones to fcare them away ; fuch as have no Servants or Children to 
fpare for fuch a Purpofe, make ufe of other Devices ; either of Mills made with Sails 
to be turned with the Wind, making a continual Snapping as they turn, where- 
with they fright the Birds, or by placing Scare-Crows in the Fields dreHed in 
country Habits. 

G The 



( 22 ) 

The Rovfton Crovj. Cornlx Cinerea. 

Numb. XXIII. 

T T S Weight twenty two Ounces ; its Length from the Point of the Bill 
-*' to the End of the Tail, was twenty two Inches ; Breadth when the 
V/ings were extended three Foot and three Inches. 

The Bill from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth two Inches and 
a half, ftrong, fmooth, black, but having a whitifh Tip; the upper 
Chap fomewhat longer than the lower, and a little bowed or crooked ; 
the Noftrils round covered with briftly Hairs ; the Tongue broad, black, 
and a little cloven, and rough on the Sides 5 the Irides of the Eyes of 
a cinereous hazel Colour. 

The Head, Wings , and Throat as far as the Breaft-Bone black, with 
a certain blue Glofs ; the breaft. Belly, Back, and Neck cinereous or 
grey, the Shafts of the Feathers being blackilh; the Feathers on the 
Throat where the black and cinereous meet have their exteriour Sides 
cinereous, and their interiour black j the Back is fomewhat of a darker 
A Ill-Colour than the Belly. 

It hath in each Wing twenty Mafter-Feathers, of which the firft is 
the fhorteft, the third, fourth, and fifth equal; from the fixth the 
Shafts being produced above the Feathers end in fharp Points ; the Tail 
confifts of twelve Feathers, the exteriour whereof were gradually fome- 
thing fhorter than the inteiiour to the middlemoft, which were feven 
Inches and a half long. 

The back Toe and Claw are large; the exteriour and interiour fore 
Toes equal ; and their Claws reach as far as the Root of the Claw of 
the middle Toe, the outmoft and middle Toe are joined at the Bottom 
as in the Crow. 

The Liver is divided into Lobes ; the Stomach or Gizzard large, and 
in it when difleded full of Wheat, Barley, and other Grain: They are 
infefted vrith Lice and Ticks. 

In the Summer time [hith. Aldrovandus) it lives on high Mountains, 
where it alfo breeds, in the Winter, compelled as is likely by the Cold, it 
defcends into the Plains, on the Heaths about Newma?'ket^ Royjion, and 
elfewhere in Ca7?ib?-idgeJ]m-e it is frequently feen in Winter Time: I 
have likewife feen many of them about Hackney near London 

2 ^f 




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T/ic Coj^uyfh f/iOT.ayA . 



( 23 ) 

The Cornifli Chough, Coracias jeu Pyrrhocorax. 

Numb. XXIV. 

IT weighed thirteen Ounces ; the Length from the Point of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail feventeen Inches, the Breadth, when the 
Wings were extended, was thirty three Inches and a half 

It is like the Jack-Daw but fomewhat bigger ; The Bill is long, red, 
fharp, and a little bowed or crooked ; the upper Mandible being fome- 
thing longer than the lower j The Noftrils round ; the Tongue broad, 
thin, and a little c Wen, fhorter than the Bill; the Sides of the FiiTures 
of the Palate, and Wind Pipe, and of the Root of the Tongue, are 
rough, and as it were hairy; Feathers reflected downwards cover the 
Noftrils ; the Feet and Legs are like thofe of the yack-Daws^ but of a 
red Colour; The Plumage of the whole Body is all over black. 

The Number of prime Feathers in each Wing is twenty, of which 
the firft is fhorter than the fecond, that than the third, the third 
than the fourth , which is the longeft of all, being by Meafure ten 
Inches and a half; the Wings complicated extend as far as the Tail; 
the Tail Feathers are in Number twelve, all equal, or if any Difference 
be, the middle a little the longer, as in the reft of this Kind, being by 
Meafure five Inches and a quarter. 

The Liver was divided into two Lobes, of which the left was the 
lefs; the Spleen long, foft, and round.; the Stomach flefhy, and full 
of Infeds. 

It frequents Rocks; old Caftles, and Churches by the Sea-Side, it is 
found not only in Cornwal, but alfo in JFaksy and all along the Weftern- 
Coafts of England^ about the Cliffs and Rocks near the Sea: Its Voice 
is like that of the common Jack-Daw, but more hoarfe. 

It is of great Ufe in Gardens, for to deftroy the Infeds, Wormsj ^c. 



rk 



f 24 ) 

Toe Brafilian Fie, Toucan, 

Numb. XXV. 

THIS Bird is little bigger than the common Magpie, the Head, Neck, and upper 
Part of the Back towards the Neck are black ; the reft of the Back and Wings 
fhew fomething of a cinereous whitenels j The Breaft fhines with a moft bright and 
lovely gold or faffron Colour with a certain rednefs near the Beginning ; the Belly 
and Thighs of a moft beautiful vermilion or fcarlet Colour : The red Colour reaches 
almoft half way of the Tail, and is intercepted by a broad Bar of black, and ending 
in a beautiful red ; the Legs, Feet, and Claws, are black. 

Its Bill is very large, confidering the Bignefs of the Bird : Its Length was fix Inches ; 
Breadth at the upper part towards the Head two Inches and a quarter ; the Circumference 
at the fame Place five Inces and a half; the upper Chap is large and fomewhat hooked 
with a Cavity exadlly fitting the under Chap, both cerate or toothed, and of a thin 
bony Subftance, and a covering over that of a horny like Scale, both very thin and 
light, weighing but eight Drams ; It was of a yellowiih Colour clouded with a darkilh 
green : towards the End or Point redifh ; its Noftrils were fituate juft above the horny 
Subftance of the Bill, adjoining to the Head, which is large and thick, as is fuitable 
and requifite to fuftain a Bill of that Length and Bignefs: They are faid to build 
their Nefts in Holes they make in the Trees where they fecure their Young ones 
from the Monkeys, after this manner; when ftie perceives the Approach of thofe 
Enemies, fte fo fettles herlelf in her Neft as to put her Bill out at the Hole, and 
gives the Monkies fuch an unwelcome Reception, that they prefently withdraw and 
glad they efcape fo : From this Quality of making Holes in Trees, this Bird is called 
by the Spaniard, Carpentero, and by the Brajilians, Tacataca, in Imitation, I fuppofe, 
of the Sound it makes. 

It feeds upon almoft all the fame Things which 'Parrots do, but was moft greedy of 
Grapes, which being pluckt off one by one, and toffed to it, it would moft dextroufly 
catch in the Air before they fell to the Ground; the Flefh of the whole Body was 
of a deep violet Colour. 

This Bird I faw in the Colledtion of Thomas Walker^ Apothecary, in Crooked- 
Lane, London. I likewife have one of the Bills now by me while I writ this De- 
fcription. * 



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I 



( 2S ) 

The Bohemian Jay or Chatterer. Garrulus Bohemicus, 

Numb. XXVI. 

THIS Bird is as big as a Blackhlrd\ from the Point of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail nine Inches; Breadth, when the Wings 
were extended, eighteen Inches; the Bill is of a grecnifli cinereous Co- 
lour, blackifh near the Bafe; the Eyes are of a beautiful red Colour en- 
compaffed with black ; its Head is fomewhat comprefled, of a chefnut 
or ferrugineous Colour, adorned with aCreft or Tuft bending backward, 
of the fame Colour, the Top more dilute ; the Neck is fliort and black 
on the fore Fart, with a Border of white proceeding from the Bill ; 
the upper Part of the Neck, Back, and covert Feathers of the Wings of 
an amber Colour ; the Breaft, Belly, and Thighs more dilute ; the 
quill Feathers of the Wings are of a dark afli, inclining to black, the 
half of which have their Tips yellow ; the upper ones are white, their 
Appendices being like to little Drops of red Sealing-Wax ; the fmall pi- 
nion quill Feathers arc tipt with white, which make a large white Spot 
on the outer Part of the Wing. 

The Tail is compofed of twelve blackifh Feathers with yellow Tips ; 
the Legs are of a dark brown in fome, of a blueifli black. 

This Bird is faid to be peculiar to Bohemia : It feeds on Fruit, efpe- 
cially Grapes, which it feems very greedy of It is of a very hot Tempera- 
ment, and exceedingly voracious; flies in Companies and is cafily tamed. 
This Bird I drew from the natural Bird preferved by Mr. Jofeph Dan- 
dridge. 




H 



Tit 



( 26) 

The Mack Woodpechn 

Numb. XXVII. 



THIS Bird weighed ten Ounces and a half, being in Length, from the Tip of 
the Eill to the End of the Tail eighteen Inches and a half; Breadth between the 
Tips of the Wings extended twenty nine Inches and a half. 

Its Bill from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth was two Inches and a half 
long, ftrong, hard, triangular, as in the reft of this Kind, being parti-coloured black, 
and white; the Tongue, when extended, is of a very great Length, which it can flioot 
out and draw back at pieafure, which is common to all the Woodpeckers; its Noftrils 
are roul^d covered with refledted Hairs; Its Head large; the Irides of the Eyes of a 
pale yellow. 

The Colour of the whole Body is black excepting the Crown of the Head, which 
down to the Noftrils is of a lovely red or vermilion Colour. 

The Number of flag Feathers in each Wing is nineteen, of which the fifth and 
fixth are the longcft ; the farcel or pinion Feather is very fhort, and not greater than 
thofe of the fecond Row. 

The Tail is made up of ten Feathers, of which the outmoft are fhotteft, the reft 
on both fides gradually longer to the two middlemoft, which are the longeft of all ; 
the Ends of thefe Feathers are ftiff, {harp pointed bending inward, about feven Inches 
long, upon which in climbling Trees they lean and fupport tlieir Bodies. 

The Legs are feathered on their fore Part almoft down to their Feet, behind no 
ftirther than the Knees ; the Feet are of a lead Colour ; the Claws ftrong and large, 
except that of the lefter back Toe. 

The Gall of a dark green ;. the Tefticles yellowifh ; the Guts feventcen Inches 
long, great and lax; the Stomach alfo lax and membranous, full oi Hexapods and 
Jlnts. It wants the Appendices, or blind Guts as the reft of this Tribe. Tkis Bird?. 
1 faw in the Colk<flion of Sir Thomas Lowther. 



£^?t 



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Ficic<f jfiMcunu^ Tu^er The qreat Ir/a^A Tfj^o-dp^^ker 






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( 27 ) 

The Nuthatch Sitta Jeu Picus cineru?. 

Numb. XXVUL. 

ITS Weight was one Ounce; its Length, from the Tip of the Billto the" End'of; 
the Tail,"was five Inches and three quarters, to the End of the Toes fix Inches 5 the: 
Bill was ftreight, triangular, black above, underneath towards the Throat white, al- 
moft an Inch long, meafuring from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth ; the Tongue; 
broad, not longer than the Mouth, horny at the End and jagged, the Noftrils round: 
and covered with fmali Briftles; the Head, Neck, and Back of an- Afh-colour ; the 
Sides under the Wings red; the Throat and Bread: of a pale chefnut red; the lowsf 
Belly under the Tail hath fome red Feathers with white Tips, from the Bill through 
the Eyes to the Neck is extended a black Stroak; the Ghin is white. 

The Number of flag Feathers is nineteen, of which the firft is very ffiort and little;: 
the interiour, or rhofe next the Body, have their Webs cinereous ; the exteriour dusky ;- 
the Shafts of all are black : The Wings underneath are marked with a double Spot, 
the one white at the Roots of the exteriour Quills, the other black and larger.beginning, 
at the Infertion of the baftard Wing. 

The Tail is fhort, fcarce two Inches, made up of twelve Feathers, alh of equal; 
Length, not fharp pointed, nor ftiff as in the Woodpeckers, but flexil and limber; the 
two middlemoft cinereous, the two next to them black with cinereous Tips ; the tvv^o 
fucceeding have the infide of their Tips white, the outfide cinereous ; the outmoft have 
their Tips of a dark Afh-colour, and under that a tranfverfe white Spot,, the reft of the : 
leathers being black. 

The Legs are fhort; both Legs and Feet, of a dark flefh Colour; It hath but oik;. 
back Toe equal to the middle of the fore Toes; the Claws are great and crooked, and' 
of a dusky Colour, that of the back Toe the biggeft, the outmoft fore. Toe. the lea&; ; 
both outmoft and inmoft joined to the middle Toe at the Bottom. 

It had a mufculous Stomach or Gizzard, in which were Beetles and othei*- Infecls , ^ 
the Length of the Guts was fix Inches and a half; the blmd Guts fhort. 

It builds in. Holes of Trees, and if the Entrance be too big, it doth artificially ftop • 
up part of it with Clay, leaving a fmall Hole for it felf to pafs in' and out by. It - 
feeds not only on Infedls, but alfo on Nut -Kernels: it is a pretty Spedacle to- 
fee her fetch a Nut out of her Hoard, place it faft in a Chink, and then ftanding.. 
above it, with her Head downwards, ftriking it with all its Force, breaks the Shell:, 
and catches up the Kernell. . " 



V^£ 



( 28 ) 

The Mofcovian hlack Game-Cock and Hen, 

Numb. XXIX, XXX. 

i HIS Bird is as big as a Tlirkey ; the Cock from the Point of the 
■*- Bill to the End of the Tail was thirty two Inches long ; the Hen 
but twenty fix; Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, forty fix 
Inches, the Hen no more than forty one. When it was pluckt and 
gutted it weighed ten Pounds : its Bill was yellow and like the reft of 
this Kind, an Inch and a half long, from the Tip to the Angles of 
the Mouth ; its Sides fharp and ftrong ; its Tongue (harp and not 
cloven 3 in the Palate is a Cavity impreffed equal to the Tongue ; the 
Irides of the Eyes of a hazel Colour; above the Eyes is a naked Skin 
of a fcarlet Colour in the Place of Eye-Brows : the Legs on the fore Part 
are feathered down to the Foot or Rife of the Toes, but bare behind; 
the Toes are joined together by a Membrane as far as the firft Joint, 
they having a Border of Skin all along ftanding out a little and ferrate ; 
the Head and Neck black and grizzled with fmall Specks of white; 
the Breaft dark green, fpotted and fpeclded with black and white; the 
Wing brown, the Back a dusky brown; the Tail Black 5 the lower 
Part of the Belly and Thighs dusky, mottled with white : The whole 
Bird is fpotted and fpeckled with black and white. 

The Hen is of a yellowifh brown and white, finely marked with black 
Feathers having white Tips. Both the Cock and Hen have a large white 
Spot on the fcapular Part of the Wing. Thefe Birds differ in their Colours 
very much, either by Age, Place, or other Accidents. They are found 
in the mountainous Parts of Miifcovy-i the Alps^ and other Places. 






Thd 



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27 /i£- Lara/dff/i' H/-/t 



( 29) 

The Carafow Cock mi Hen. 

Numb. XXXI, [XXXII. 

THIS Bird is almoft as big as a Turkey ; its Bill thick and hooked at the 
End, partly cinereous and partly yellow ; on the Bafe of the upper 
Mandible is a round hard Excrefcence of the Bignefs of a Nutmeg, of a 
yellow Colour; the Eyes black, the Irides crimfon with a Border of white ; 
the Head and Neck covered with Feathers of a deep black like Velvet; 
on its Head was a Crefl; of curled black Feathers with white Tips turn- 
ing up fpirally as far as the Beginning of the Neck, which they can 
ere^t or let fall at Pleafure. All the reft of the Bird is Black, excepting 
the lower Part of the Belly about the Vent, which is white, with a Mark 
of the fame Colour acrofs the Thigh ; the Legs and Feet are of a pale 
ferrugineous Colour. 

The Head and Neck of the Hen were black ; the Tips of fome of 
the Neck-Feathers white with a broad Stripe of white acrofs the middle 
of the Creft; the Bill was cinereous; the Excrefcence on the Bafe yellow. 

The Breaft and lower Part of the Neck, Back, and Wino-s were of 
a dusky brown, the middle of the Belly white; the Tips of fome of 
the Feathers black; the Thighs and Parts about the Vent of a pale yel- 
lowifh brown; the Tail black, with four Bars of white at equal Di- 
fiances acrofs it ; the Legs and Feet cinereous. 

I took the Pourtray of this Bird at Mr. Berrisford\ at Chemhford in 
EJ[ex: it was very tame and fociable, eating and drinking with any 
Company, 

The Cock I had of a Man from the JVeJi-htdies, They are generally 
brought from Carafow, from whence they take their Name. They are 
called by the hidians^ Tecuecholi Mountain-Bird, or American Pheafant* 



J 



the 



( 30 ) 

The 'white crejled Turkey. Gallopavo CreilatuSv 

Numb. XXXIII. 

THIS Bird I faw in the Poffeffion of Henry Cornelly- 
joUj Efq; beyond Chemisford in EJfex : It was of the 
Bignefs of the common Turkies^ having a beautiful large 
white Copple on its Crown or Top of the Head ; the 
fleiliy Part of the Head and Neck was red intermixed 
with purple and blue as in other Turkies. 

The Back and upper Sides of the Wings were of a 
dusky yeilovYifh brown ; the Bread, Belly, Thighs, and 
mnder Sides of the Wings white; the Feathers on the 
lower Part of the Belly and Thighs were edged with 
black ; the Tail white, the extreme Feathers of which were 
fcolloped near the Ends with black; the next circular 
Eow fcolloped with a dusky yellow; the Legs flelli Co- 
lour having only the Rudiments of Spurs ; the Claws 
dusky. The Cock may eafily be diftinguifhed from the 
Hen^ by a builiy Tuft like Horfe-hair, growing on the 
lower Part of his Bread: : They have a ftrange Antipathy 
againfl: red Colours, and are exceedingly provoked at the. 
Sight of them. 

The wild Turkies are now kept by a great many of our 
EngUjlo Gentlemen, and feem to do very well where there 
are fmall Woods, and Copfes, in Parks or other enclofed 
Places for them,. 



4 Tfje 



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J^/lc Cre/ht^ J UTKXi/ Coc/c 




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(.31 } 

The Hen of the black Game. Grygallus miner* 

Numb. XXXiV. 

TS Weight was forty feven Ounces; Length fron^. 
the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail twtnty 
three Inches; Breadth, when the Wings were expanded^/ 
thirty four Inches: It is the Colour of a Woodcock, but 
darker, of a rediili brown, intermixed with tranfverfe' 
Lines of black; the Chin yellowiili white ; the Breaft and; 
Belly had a Mixture of yellow/ brown, and black tranf- 
verfe Lines, which made it appear hoary and higher 
coloured than the upper Side. It had a large white 
^'pot on the fcapular Part of the Wings, in- each of which* 
were twenty fix beam Feathers ; the exteriour Webs of a 
yellowiili white, as was alfo the exteriour Webs of the 
firfl: Row of Coverts ; the under Side of the Wings white,. 

The Tail confifts of iixteen Feathers^ the outmoft: 
fomewhat longer than the reft, but not fo much relied:'- 
ed as thofe in the Cock, and is of the fame Colour o£ 
thofe of the Body. See Plate the twenty fecond, Vol. I^. 

This Bird I had from Sir Robert Abdy._ 




(32) 
The Guiny Hen. Gallina Africana. 

Numb. XXXV, 

T S Weight was two Pound ; Length from the Point of the Bill to 
the End of the Tail two Foot; Breadth, when the Wings were ex- 
panded, thirty two Inches. It is for Bignefs equal to the common He/^^ but 
its Neck longer and flenderer : they are (iommonly of a dark Afli-co- 
lour inclining to a black, all over chequered with white Spots; this 
Bird was a Hen ; , the Breaft white, fpotted with large Spots of black 
.chequered with white: its Bill red, towards the Point of a horn Colour; 
the Top of the Head of a dusky Colour, on which grew a horny Sub- 
fiance of the fame Colour; the Pupil of the Eye black, the Irides 
•white; round the Eye on each Side of the Head was of a flefh Colour 
intermixed with a pale blue ; the back Part of the Head of a dilute redifh 
brown, on which grew black Briftles ftanding upright; the Bottom of the 
Head on both Sides all along is taken up by a Kind of a callous Flefh of 
a fanguine Colour, which, that it might not hang down like Gills or 
Wattles, Nature hath taken care to turn backward and fold up, fo that it 
.ends in two acute Procefl'es ; from this Flefli arife up on both Sides certain. 
Caruncles, wherewith the Noftrils are invented round, and the Head in 
the fore Part feparated from the Bill, of the lower Edges are lightly re- 
fleded back under bothNoftiils; what is between the Crown and this 
FlejQi on the right and left Side, is marked with a double fcaly Incifure, 
but behind with none. 

The Colour under the Jaws or Throat is a dark purple; the Neck more 
dilute, and fprinkled with fniall white Specks. The Number of quill 
Feathers was twenty three, the firft four of which were white, as were 
alfo four of the firft Row of covert Feathers ; all the whole Bird, ex- 
cepting the Breaft, was of a dusky black, chequered with white Spots: 
the Legs were of a redifL flefh Colour, in fome dusky; the middle Claw 
in thefe Birds is longer than in the common Uen ; this which I drew 
being two Inches and a quarter long. The beft way to raife them is, 
by litting their Eggs under the common Hen. The Right Honourable the 
Lord Burli?7gto7i was pieafed to fend me this Bird from his Seat at 
Chijimck. 

4- The 




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( 33 ) 
The Tied Fieldfare. 

Numb. XXXVI. 

TH E Head and Neck of this Bird was white ; fpoN 
ed in fome Places with black, in others with lead 
Colour. It had a dark yellow Spot on the fore Part of ts 
Neck, and on that feveral Spots of black ; its Back dark 
brown; the Rump Alh-Colour; the middle of its Breaft 
dusky yellow with tranfverfe Lines of black; the Bill yel- 
lowilh; the quill Feathers of the Wings dark or dusky 
brown, their Edges of the exteriour Webs white, as was 
alfo the fcapular Feathers; on the upper Part next the 
Back, it had two or three white Feathers ; the Belly and 
Thighs white, with fome tranfverfe Lines and Spots of 
black. 

The Tail was made up of twelve black Feathers ; the 
Legs and Feet of a dusky brown ; the Claws black. 
This Bird was fent me by my very good Friend Mr. 
Abraham francia: It was ihot among other Fieldfares, 






K Tht 



C 34 ) 

The Tied Blackbird. 

Numb. XXXVir. 

ITS Bill was of lovely yellow, as In others of the male 
Kind of this Species ; the Pupil of the Eyes black , 
the Irides yellow ; the Top of its Head and upper Side of 
its Neck white, with tranfverfe Lines of black ; the under 
Side of the Neck and Breaft fpotted with oblong Spots of 
black down the Breaft ; on the lower Part black with fome 
tranfverfe Lines of white ; it had alfo four large Spots 
of white, two on the upper Coverts, and two on the 
fcapular Part of the Wing: All the reft of the Body, 
Wings, Belly, Thighs, and Tail were black. 

The Legs and Feet dusky brown; the Claws black. 
This Bird was fent me by Sir Robert jibdy^ and colledt- 
cd by a Gentleman as a great Curiofity. 




The 



37 




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-Z/1^ J^teci ^/^cASit^e/. 



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i 



(35) 

The Minor^ 

Numb. XXXVIII. 

THIS Bird is about the Bignefs of thei Mizzletoe Thrujh ; 
its Bill of a beautiful red Colour j the Irides of the 
Eyes pale yellow ; on the hind Part of the Head is a 
broad Stripe of yellow, reaching as far as the Eyes, the 
Ends inclining downward; the whole Bird is black, ex- 
cepting two long white Marks in the two outmoft quill 
Feathers of the Wings ; its Legs were of a orange Co- 
lour; the Claws black. This Bird imitates a human Voice, 
fpeaking very articulately. I drew this Bird at Mr. Mere^s 
CofFee-Houfe, in King-ftreet, Bhomshury. Sir Hans Sloan 
had one of thefe Birds that fpoke very prettily, which he 
prefented to Her Majefty Queen Carolina, They are 
brought from Ectfi-lndia. 




The 



I ( 36 ) 

The Water-Ouzel Merula aquatica. 

Numb. XXXIX. 

TTS Weight is two Ounces and a half; its Length from the Point of 
•*• the Bill to the End of the Tail, eight Inches and a half, to the End 
of the Claws nine ; Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, fourteen 
Inches. It hath a fhorter Body than the Blackbird^ and a thicker Neck ; 
its Bill is ftreight, fharp pointed, tenderer than the Blackbird' s.^ mea- 
furing from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth about an Inch long, 
or fomewhat lefs, black coloured ; the Head and upper Side of the 
Neck are of a dark du^ky Colour or black, with a Tindture of red; all 
the Back, and both prime and covert Feathers of the Wings are party 
coloured of cinereous and black, the middle of the Feathers being black, 
the Edges blue; the under Side of the Neck and fore Part of the Bread 
are milk white, the Feathers contiguous to the white are redifh, the 
lower Belly towards the Tail black ; the Eye-lids white round about. 

It hath in each Wing eighteen Quills ; the Tail is fhorter than in 
the reft ^i this Kind, fcarce two Inches and a half long, compofed of 
twelve Feathers of equal Length; the Legs, Feet, and Claws are black; 
the outmoft fore Toe at Bottom joined to the middlemoft; the Tongue 
is black, flender, and a httle cloven at the Tip ; the Circles encompaffing 
the Pupils of the Eyes great, broad, and of a fair hazel Colour; the Eyes 
furnifhed with nidating Membranes ; the Noftrils long, the Plumage co- 
vering the whole Body thick fet as in water Birds. 

It frequents ftony Rivers and water Courfes in the mountainous Parts 
. of IFales^ Ncrthumbe'rla^id.^ Wejlmoreland-^ Torkpire^ ^c. 

This Bird was fliot by Sir Robert Abdy^ and fent to me out oi Cum- 
.hcj^land. 

It feeds upon Fifh, yet refufeth not Infeds ; fitting on the Banks of 
Rivers it now and then flirts up its Tail ; although it be not webfooted 
yet it will fometimes dive or dart it felf quite under Water. It is a foli- 
.tary Bird, accompanying only with its mate in coupling and breeding 
Time. 

Hie 



J9 




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TAe- ^<7Z>A {P/i'j^s^ 



40 




7 'A / Z^fi'jf a// A' Ij . 



.y- / ■,/::-^ 



( 37 ) 
The Banana Bird from Jamaica. 

Numb. XL. 

THIS Bird was of the Bignefs of our Englijh Ster- 
ling', its Bill, thick, long, and fliarp pointed; the 
upper Mandible of a dark cinereous or alh Colour : the 
tinder Mandible blue ; the Pupil of the Eye of a lliining 
black ; the Irides of a lovely yellow, bordered with a 
broad Stripe of blue ending in a Point on each Side ; the 
Head, ISleck, and upper Part of the Breaft, part of 
the Back, the Wings and Tail black, except fome white 
Spots in the upper covert Feathers of the Wings, all the 
reft of the Body is of a fine gold yellow. 

It refembles the Starling in all its A6lions being very 
mifcheivous. It is a Native of Jamaica^ and other of the 
Carihhee Jjlands. This Bird I drew from a Bird which 
Her Grace the Duchefs of 'Portland brought with her from 
Jamaica. I have feen four or five of them fet upon and 
kill a large Bird or Fowl, and when dead each one, ac- 
cording to his Place of Mafterihip, choofe his Part, ©/^. 
the Heart, Brains, &c. keeping the Part which he makes 
choice of till he has fatiated himfelf 



c^ e^ cfa 



The 



( 38 ) 

The yellow Starling from Bengali. 

Numb. XLI. 

THIS Bird is of the Bignefs of our Englijh Starling ; 
its Bill thick, long, and of a dusky Colour; the Pu- 
pil of the Eyes black; the Irides haZel coloured, encom- 
pafTed with yellow ; the Top of the Head and Sides of 
the Face round the Eyes is of a dark Colour inclining 
to black, tending downwards and ending in a blunt 
Point on the Side of the Neck ; at the Bafe of the upper 
Mandible is a large Spot of yellow ending in a Point 
on the fore Part of the Head; the Back, rump, and 
Tail is of a line beautiful yellow ; the Chin, Breail, and 
Belly more dilute ; on the Throat and Breaft are long 
dusky Marks down the middle of the Feathers; the quill 
Feathers of the Wings are of a dark Colour ; the Edges 
of the exteriour Webs yellow. 

The fcapular Part of the Wing is yellow with fine 
large dark coloured Spots ; the Legs and Feet dusky. 
This Pourtray 1 took from a Bird Mr. Jofeph Dandridge 
received from a Friend of his at Bengali. I have noii 
found this Bird defcribed by any -Author. 







The 



4t 








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( 39 ) 

The Hoop or Hoopoe. Upupa, 

Numb. XLII, XLIir. 

TS Weight was ten Ounces and ten Drams; its Length, from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Taff, 
was tweh^e Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings were extended, eighteen Inches ; its Bill two Inches and a 
quarter long, black, fharp, and fomething bending ; the Tongue fmall, deep, withdrawn in the Mouth trianr 
gular, being broad at Bottom., and fharp at Top like a perfect equilateral Triangle. 

The Shape of the Body approacheth to that of a Plover; the Head is adorned with a moft beautifial 
Creft two Inches high, confifting of a double Row of Feathers reaching from the Bill to the Nape of th^ 
Neck all along the Top of the Head, which it can at Pleafure fet up and let fall ; it is made up of twenty 
four Feathers, fome of which are longer than others ; the Tips of them are black, under the black they are 
white, the remaining Part under the white being of a chefnut inclining to a yellow ; the Neck is of a pale 
redifh yellow ; the Breaft white ; the Tail is four Inches and a half long, made up of ten Feathers only, black 
with a crofs Mark or Bed of white of the Figure ofaCrefient or Parabola ; the Tail is extended further than 
die Wings complicated. 

There are in each Wing eighteen Qiillls, or mailer Feathers, of which the ten foremoft are black having a 
white crofs Bar, which in the fecond, third, fourth, fifth, iixth, and feventh is more than half an Inch broad; 
the feven following Feathers have live or fix white crofs Bars ; the Limbs or Borders of the laft are fomething red i 
the Rump is white. 

The Irides of the Eyes are of a hazel Colour : the lower Eye-lid bigger than the upper ; the Legs lliort; 
the outmoft Toe at Bottom faftened to the middle without any intervening Membrane; the Windpipe at the 
beginning of the Divarication or Divifion into two Branches which go to the Lungs, hath two little Bones 
outwardly fupplying the Ufe of the Head of a Windpipe, between which is fpread a very thin Skin : tl:e annu-' 
lary Cartilages beyond the Divarication in each Branch were only femicircular as in Herm^ 

In the Stomach were found Beetles and other Inledts. It hath no blind Guts. 

In the Number of Tail-feathers, want of blind Guts, crofs Lines of the Wings, and partly alfo in its Foodi 
it agreeth with the JVoaApsciers. 

About Cologn and elfe where in High Germany it is very frequent, where theycall.it Widehuppe; it fits fos 
the moft part on the ground, fometimes on Willows, (^c. 

The Hen of this Bird was fhot in- the Garden of Mr. Star key Mayos at Woodford on Epping Forejf^ where- 
they had obferved it fome Time, and ufed all the Means to take it they could ; but it was fo fhy, that ir avoided^ 
all their Traps which were laid for it, . which the Gentleman obferving, ordered it to be fhot : It was^ fent to xas- 
to be preferved for him. 

The Cock of this Kind I drew from a Piflure done in Germany by a great Mailer there, now in the Pof- - 
feffion of Mr. Nisbet, Gentleman, who had it drawn from the Bird then alive. 

There is fome Difference in the Colours of the Hen, and this Bird which was a Cock ; I was credibly in^- 
form-ed by Robert Brijioiu, Efq; who faw both the Drawings of the Cock and Hen, and told me his Soji.fh.ofe- 
ihe Cock,' which was like the .drawing, at Ms Seat at Mkhekr near TVincheJier in Hamp/hirt^. 



c-?s> era. 



( 40 ) 

The Bee-Eater. Merops five Apiafter. 

Numb. XLIV. 

IT is for Bignefs equal to a Blackbird •-, from the Tip of the Bill, to the End of 
the Tail, eleven Inches and a half long j Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, 
eighteen Inches; in the Shape of the Body it is very like that of the Kingsfifher. 

The Bill is great, from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth almoft two Inches 
long, fave only, that it is a little more arch'd or bending downward than that of the 
Kingsfijhen the Tongue flender, deeply cut in or torn at the Tip; the Irides of the 
£yes of a lovely red, and in fome of a hazel Colour. 

The Head is great and oblong; th.e Colour of the Feathers at the Bafe of the upper 
chap is white, then yellow and green ; the back Part of the Head of a dark red, but 
in fome Birds, of a green and red Mixture j from the Corners of the Mouth, through 
the Eyes on each Side, is extended a black Stroak, contiguous whereto under the 
Chin are bright but pale yellow Feathers ; the Neck, Breaft, Belly, and Thighs of 
a blueifh green ; the icapular Feathers green with a Mixture of red, in fome the Co^ 
lour of the under Side is blue. 

The Number of beam Feathers in each Wing, is about twenty one or twenty two, 
of an orange Colour tipt with black, intermixt with fome green Feathers ; the wing 
Feathers varied in feveral Birds, in fome blue, in others more redj the Tail is about 
tliree inches and a half long, made up of twelve Feathers of a green Colour, in fome 
blue ; the -under Side of a dun Colour ; the two xniddlemoft Feathers run out in 
Length beyond the reft, and end in fharp Points. 

The Legs are very fhort, but thick for the Length ; both Legs and Feet exaftly like 
thofe of tlie Kingsffher ; for the fore Toes, as in that, are all joined together to the 
iirft Joint, as if they were but one Toe ; of a blackifli Colour, in fome of a dusky 
led ; the Claws black, 

The Liver was of a pale yellow ; the Stomach rather membranous than mufculous, 
in which when diflefted was foun^ Beetles and other Infers. It feeds not only oh 
Bees, but upon the Cicad£ Beetles, and alfo on the Seeds of the Nipplewort, baftard 
Parllcy, Turnips, i^c. as Bellonius teftifies. 

4S 



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44 




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( 41 ) 

The Horjeman Pigeon, 

Numb. XLV. 

THESE Pigeons are of a baftard Breed, between the Carrier and 
Cropper, and fometimes the Carrier and Runt, retaining the Marks 
of both Sorts, having the fiejfhy Excrefcences on the Bafe of the Bill, and 
round the Eyes ; their Crop a little fwollen ; the Irides of the Eyes 
of a beautiful orange Colour inclining to red. 

This Bird was of a dark blueilli Afli-colour ; the upper Part of the 
Neck, as it was diverfly objefted to the Light, did exhibit to the Be- 
holder various and fhining Colours like thofe of the Rainbow: the 
Crop was white intermixed with pale green ; the outer quill Feathers 
of the Wings were half way white, the lower half black with white 
Edges: the firft Row of Coverts tipt with black, the fecond Row of 
Coverts had a black Stripe acrofs them, ending in a Point towards the 
outer Edge of the Wing ; the Tail was compofed of twelve black 
Feathers about four Inches and a half long. 

The Legs and Feet were red. Thefe Pigeons are faid to be the beft 
Breeders of all the Pigeon Kind, as I have experienced by keeping them 
feveral Years. They are very apt to decoy other Pigeons, and is often 
pradlifed by our London Pigeon-Merchants. They take the Cock as 
foon as the Young is hatched, and carrying him where there is any 
Dove-Houfes, they throw him up, and he will, by taking turns about, 
be fure to carry off fome of the Pigeons from the Place, or if he jjieet 
any in his Way, he will endeavour to take them with him. 



'^ 



M Hh 



ue 



( 42 ) 
The Wood-Pigeon. Oenas. 

Numb. XLVI. 

T T is bigger than the common Pigeon ; its Weight was fourteen Ounces 
•^ and a half; its Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the 
Tail, was fourteen Inches long; and the Breadth, when the Wings 
were extended, was twenty fix Inches : the Colour and Shape, of the 
Body are like that of the common Pigeon ; the Bill alfo a like, and of 
equal Length, of a pale red Colour; the Noilrils were great and pro- 
minent; the Top of the Head cinereous; the Neck covered withchang^ 
^ble Feathers, which as they are varioully objedled to the Light, appear 
of a purple or fhining green, no Silk like them ; the fore Part of the 
Breaft, the Shoulders and Wings are dafhed with, a purpliih or red-wine 
Colour, whence it took the Name [Oenas.) The Wings, Shoulders, 
and middle of the Bacl^ are of a dark Afh-colour; the lefl of the Back 
to the Tail of a paler ; all the quill Feathers (except ths four or five 
outmoft, which are all over black with their Edges white) have their 
lower Part cinereous, and their upper Part black ; the Tail is five Inches 
long made up of twelve Feathers, having their lower Part cinereous, 
their upper, for one third of their Length, black ; the nether Side, of 
the Body, excepting, the upper Part of the Breaft, is all cinereous; the 
Wings clofed reach not to the End of the Tail ; in both Wings are 
two black Spots, the one upon two or three quill Feathers next the 
Body, the other upon two or three of the covert Feathers incumbent 
upon thofe Quills^ both Spots are on the out Side of the Shafts, and 
not far from the Tips of the Feathers; the two outmoft Feathers of 
the Tail have the lower half of their exteriour Veins white. 

The Feet are red, the Claws black; the Legs feathered down a little 
below the Knees; the blind Guts very fhort: it had no Gall-Bladder 
to be found ; it had a large Craw full of Acorns and other Grains : It 
had a mufculous Stomach, long Tefticles, and a long Breafl-bone» 



the 




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'^ ' ( 43 ) 

The Turtle-Dove, Turtur, 

Numb. XLVIL 

T S Length, from the point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, was 

twelve Inches; its Breadth, when the Wings were extended twenty 
one Inches; its Bill flender; from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth 
almoft an Inch long, of a dusky blue Colour without, and' red within ; 
its Tongue fmall and not divided; the Irides of its Eyes between red 
and yellow: A circle of naked red Flefh.encompaffeth the Eyes, as in 
many others of this Kind. 

Its Feet were red ; its Claws black ; its Toes divided to the very 
Bottom; the inner Side of the. middle Claw thinned into an Edge. 

Its Head and the middle of its Back blue or cinereous of the Colour of 
a common Pigeon; the Shoulders and the Rump of a fordid red;, the 
Breaft and Belly white ; the Throat tindured with a lovely^ vinous 
Colour ; each Side of the Neck was adorned with a Spot of beautiful 
Feathers, of a black Colour with white Tips; the exteriour quill Fea- 
thers of the Wings were dusky, the middle cinereous ; the interiour had 
their Edges red ; the fecond Row of wing Feathers alh-coloured ; tha 
lefler Rows black : the Tail was compofed of twelve Feathers of v/hicK:^ 
the outmofi: had both their Tips and exteriour Webs white ; in the fuc~ 
ceeding' the white part by Degrees grew lefs and lefs, fo that the' mid— 
dlemoft had no white at all ; the Length of the Tail was four . Inches 
and a half 

The Tefticles were great, an Inch long ; its Guts by Meafure twenty 
fix Inches ; its blind Guts very fhort ; its Crop great, . in which was found 
Hemp-Seed ; its Stomach or Gizzard fleihy ; above the Stomach the 
Gullet is dilated into a kind of Bag, fet with papillary Glandules. This 
Bird I had from Sir Rokrl Abdy^^ 



Tie 



( 44 ) 



"he Portugal Dovt, 



Numb. XLVIII. 



THIS Bird is a fmall matter bigger than tlie com- 
mon Turtle-Dove kept in Cages ; the Head, Back, 
Breaft, and Belly were of a dusky brown ; the Bill black ; 
The Irides of the Eyes of a beautiful fhining faffiron Co- 
lour: it had on the middle of its Neck on each Side two 
or three Feathers of a ihining black with white Tips ; 
the wing Feathers were dusky, their Edges of a deep 
yellow, the fcapular Part adorned with black Feathers 
with white Edges ; the Tail was made up of twelve Fea- 
thers, the outmoft of which had their exteriour Webs 
and Tips white, the reft of the Feathers of a dark Alh- 
colour with white Tips. 

The Legs and Feet red ; the Claws black. This Bird 
I had of a Captain which traded to Portugal, who told 
me they were very common in that Country, 



VHf'i ^^(73 i^i,c\ 

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'^J/ie Fa7'tzi4a/ ^oi'-e- 



I 



49 




y Turkic X^^nfe. /rv?n Jamaica. 



(45 ) 

Che Turtle-Dove from Jamaica. 

Numb. XLIX. 

THIS Bird was about the Bignefs of the common 
Turtle-Dovej which are kept in Cages ; its Bill red 
towards the Bafe, the Point of an Alh-colour ; the upper 
Mandible a little hooked at the Tip ; the Noftrils oblong ; 
the Head and Chin of a lovely rich blue with a fmall Bor- 
der of white, round both. 

The upper Part of the Neck, the Back, Belly, Wings,^ 
and Tail were of a yellowiili brown ; the Edges of the 
quill and covert Feathers of the Wings more pale ; the 
Legs and Feet red, the Claws black. This Bird I faw 
at the Right Honourable the Lord Trevor's at Eaji-Bar- 
net. It was brought with other curious Birds from the 
ff^eji-lndies to Charles Hedges, Efq; who was pleafed to 
give it to my Lord ; and defired me to go thither to draw 
it, and give it a Place in the Book. 4. 






N The 



The Bunting. Emberlfa albai 

Numb. L. - 

ITS Weight was fourteen Drams; Length, from the! 
Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, feven Inches; 
Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, ten Inches. 

Its Bill great and thick, having a hard Knob or Emi- 
nency in the upper Mandible or Palate, wherewith it is-; 
thought to bruife Wheat, Oats, and other Grain; the: 
Sides of the lower Chap, rife up in an Angle on each 
Side, and incline to one another under the Tubercle of 
the Palate: the Tongue is Iharp, and Hit in two; the 
Claws are of a pale dusky Colour ; the back Toe is great, 
armed with a lefTer and more crooked Claw than in Larks, 
the outmoft Fore-Toe is equal to the inmoft, and grows 
faft to the middlemoft at Bottom, as in other Birds: the 
Colour of the whole Body like that of a Lark, but more 
dark, the middle of the Feathers blackilh ; the Chin, 
Breaft, and Belly are of a dusky yellowilh white with 
oblong dark Spots; the quill and covert Feathers of the 
Wings are dusky, 'having their outer Edges cinereous: 
the Tail is more than three Inches long, of a dusky Co- 
lour. It fnigs fitting upon the higheft Twigs of Trees 
and Shrubs. It feeds on Corn, and other Grain. 



The 



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(47) 

The Reed Sparrow. An Cannevarola. 

Numb. LL 

ITS Length, from the Point of the EilF to the End of the Tail, was 
iix Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, 
ten Inches; Weight three quarters of an Ounce; the Bill fhort and 
black, the lower Chap, having its Edges on both Sides bent inwards, is. 
Eollow in falhion of a Funnel, and contains the Tongue within it. Be- 
sides, near its Bafe it rifes up into a Dent or Angle on each Side, to 
which there, is a Notch or Furrow correfpondent in the upper Chap to 
receive it, as in the Bimting^ Bill ,• the Head is black, a white Ring 
encompafles the Neck pointing towards the Corners of the Mouth; the 
Chin and Throat are black; the Breaft and Belly white, fpotted with a. 
faint dusky Colour on the Breaft ; the Back and covert Feathers of the 
Wings are party coloured of black and redifh Colour, the middle of each 
Feather being black, the outfides red ; the Rump red with a Mixture 
of Afh-colour; the quill Feathers of the Wings are dusky, having their 
exteriour Edges red ; the Tips of the feven firft or Outmoft are {harp,- 
of the reft blunt, indented and of an Afh-colour; the leftcr Rows of 
wing Feathers have their outer Edges and Tips red ; the Plumage on the 
Bafe or Ridge of the Wing blueifh, underneath white; the Tail wa37 
two Inches and a half long, and made up of twelve Feathers-, of which, 
the two middlemoft are fomething fhorter than the reft, and black.; • 
the outer Edges red, the three next on each Side were dark coloured, 
and almoft black ; the exteriour Edge of the fifth is white ; the inte- - 
riour alfo not far from the Tip is fpotted with whiter the outmoft Feather - 
is wholly white, all end in fharp Points ; the Feet are blackifta, the Claws ; 
black ; the outmoft and middle Toe joined at Bottom; the backToe great : 
and ftrong; the blind Guts fhort and thick. It hatha gall Bladder: the j 
Stomach is mufculous ; in it when opened were found Seeds, &c. . 

The Hen, as in moft Birds, is not fo fair coloured, the Ring about : 
her Neck is darker and fcarce appearing;- all the. reft of the Feathers, of : 
the Head, Back, Shoulders, and covert Feathers of the Wings are of the ^ 
fame Colours of the Cock, but much paler; the Legs and Feet of a . 
flefb Colour ; the Claws black. 



i 48 ) 

The Cock and -Hen Sparrows from -Bengal. 

Numb. LIL 

THIS Bird is fomewhat bigger than our common 
Houfe Sparrow ; its Bill large and lliarp pointed, of 
a horn Colour; the Irides of the Eyes whitiili; the Top 
of the Head of a beautiful yellow with a Shade of orange 
Colour ; the upper Side of the Neck, Back, Wings, and 
Tail were of a dusky Colour, the Edges of the Feathers 
light hair Colour: it had a broad Stripe of the fame Co- 
lour reaching round the Breaft : the Chin, under Side of 
the Neck and Belly were of a light hair Colour with a 
Tin6lure of yellow ; the Legs and Feet orange Colour ; 
the Claws cinereous: The Hen was of the fame Colour 
but more dark ; the Stripes acrofs the Breaft not fo Inroad 
as in the Cock. 

Thefe Birds are in the Colle6l:ion of Mr. Jofeph Dan- 
dridgCy to whom I have been obliged for feveral curious 
Birds. Thefe Sparrows were fent to him from the Bay 
of Bengal in the Eaji- Indies, 




The 



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(49) 

The Chinefe Sparrows. 

Numb. LIII. 

THESE Birds are of the fame Bignefs of Linnets; 
the Bills alh-coloured, llaort and thick like that of 
the Chaffinches ; the Head, Neck, Bread, and under 
Side of the Belly of the Cocks are black : the reft of the 
Body, Wings, and Tail of a redifh brown or light chefnut 
colour ; the Legs and Feet dusky. 

The Hen's Back, Wings, and upper Part of the Tail, 
are of a more dusky brown than the Cock's ; the lower 
Part of the Breaft, and Belly, of a light hair Colour ; the 
Sides of the Belly, and under the Wings, were regularly 
fpotted with black and white ; the Legs, and Feet of a 
light yellowilh hair Colour. Their Note was like the 
whiftling of the Wind. The Pourtray of thefe Birds I 
drew at Mr. Bland's at the Tiger on Tower-Hilly who told 
me they were brought from China in Eaji-India by the 
Name of Chinefe Sparrows. 




O The 



( 50 ) 
The Tied ChaffincK 

Numb. LIV. 

TH E Bill of this Bird from the Point above half 
way was of a rediili Colour with a Stripe of a blueifli 
lead Colour round the upper and under Mandible, towards 
the Bafe red ; the Eyes black, the Irides white, the Eye- 
Lids black ; .the whole Head and Neck white, round the 
lower Part was a treble Collar, the firft blueiih lead Co- 
lour, then white, then blue fucceeding the white; the 
Back redilli brown fpotted with greenifh yellow ; the 
Breaft and Belly of the fame Colour, with a large fcol- 
loped Mark of blueilli Colour down the middle of the 
Breaft. 

The Wings were white with a faint tin6lure of greenifh 
yellow, intermixt with a few black Feathers ; the Tail 
was made up of twelve Feathers, the two outmoft of 
which on each Side was white, the two next to them 
black, the middle ones white ; the Legs and Feet of a 
redifli flelli Colour. 

This Bird I faw in the PoiTeffion of Mr. NoMe, who 
told me it frequented his Brother's Garden at Havering 
Bower in EJfex, where he ufed to feed it a long time 
before he could take it. 



The 



34 







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55 




^u^iuiaiy CipLoi 



^^/f^'Sfzn/h 



(51) 
T^e hUch Martin or Swift. Hirundo Apus. 

Numb. LV. 

THIS Bird is much bigger than the common Swallow ; its Head is large, 
the Mouth wide, and the Bill fmall and black, towards the Noftrils 
broad and depreffed ; its Tongue is broad and fomewhat cloven ; its 
Noftrils long placed obliquely, obtufe towards the Head, acute towards 
the Point of the Bill ; its Eyes great, and their Irides of a hazel Colour. 

It hath almoft no Variety or Difference of Colour in the whole 
Body ; for as well the upper as the lower Side, and alfo the Wings and 
Tail are black with an obfcure Tindure of redifh brov/n, only under 
the Chin is a notable Spot of white or Afh-colour. 

It hath in each Wing eighteen quill Feathers, all ending in fharp 
Points, but efpecially the exteriour ones ; the Tail is about a hand 
Breadth long, confifting of but ten Feathers, from the middle to the 
outmoft in order one longer than another ending all in fharp Points. 

Its Legs are very fliort and thick; its Feet very fmall; the Toes are 
divided from the very Rife ; the gall Bladder is little ; the Stomach not 
very flefhy, out of v/hich when diffeded we took Beetles and other 
Infeds. 

It is faid that by reafon of the Length of its Wings and Shortnefs of 
its Legs, if it happens to alight or fall upon the Ground, it cannot raife 
it felf up again, but may eafily be caught; wherefore it doth either 
always fly or lit upon the Tops of Churches, Towers, or other ancient 
Buildings. 

Its Weight was three quarters of an Ounce and ten Drams ; its Lengthy 
from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail, {tvtn Inches and a 
half ; the Diftance between the Wings when extended was fifteen Inches 
and a half; the Bill three quarters of an Inch, which was alfo the 
Length of the Legs. 

I found on the Body of this Bird an odd fhaped Infed of the Loufe 
Kind, different from any I have feen amongfl; our Englip Infeds. 



rh 



{ 52 ) 

The Martin or Martinet. Hirundo agreflis. 

Numb. LVI. 



IT S Length was fix Inches; Breadth ten Inches and a half; its Bill and Head very 
much deprefled and flat as in the Houfe- Swallows', the upper Mandible fomewhat 
longer than the nether; the Mouth yellow within fide; the Tongue cloven; the 
Irides of the Eyes of a redifh Colour ; the Feet fmall and Legs Ihort, and covered to 
the very Claws with a white down, by which Note it is to be diftinguiilied from all 
thofc of the Swallow Kind. 

Its Head, Neck, Back, Tail, and Wings are of the fame Colour with the Swallow's^ 
but fadder and not lb gloffy ; its Rump, Breaft, and Belly white, under the Chin the 
white is more obfcure; in each Wing is eighteen matter Feathers; from the tenth to 
the fcventccnth have their Tips broad and indented ; the Tail is lefs forked than the Swal- 
low'i, ; the outmoft Feathers two Inches and a half long. This Bird builds a round. 
Neft covered above, leaving a round Hole in the Side by which it goes in and out. 
In the Stomachs of the Youns; was found Flies and Beetles. 



"■o 



The Sa?id Ma7~ti?t. Hirundo riparia. 

THIS Bird is the leaft of all the Swallow Kind, being from the Tip of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail, but five Inches long; its Bill is fmall, fharp, flat, 
black, as in the.refl: of this Kind ; from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth half 
an Inch long; its Tongue cloven; its Eyes great; its Feet dusky; at the Rife of the 
back Toe, a few fmall Feathers grow, eUe the Legs are bare as far as the Knees. 

Its Head, Neck, and Back are of a dark dun or moufe Colour ; the Number of the 
Feathers in the Wings and Tail are the fame as in other Swallows-, but the quill 
Feathers of the Wings are darker than thofe of the Coverts, and Back ; from the 
tenth to the laft of all of equal Length; the fix next to the tenth, have their Tips 
broad and indented ; the middle Feathers of the Tail are an Inch and three quarters 
long, the outmoft an Inch and half. It builds in Holes of river Banks and fand Pits; 
makes its Ncft of Straws, and Bent of Grafs, &c. within of Feathers, on which it 
lays its Eggs : it differs from the common Martin in having no white on its Rump, 
nor its Feet feathered as that hath. 



The 



^0 








2Ac Ja/ia ^' /'iT/i/t //Far'i^/i 



(53 ) 

The Long Tail Titmoufe, Parus caudatus. 

Numb. LVII. 

THE Crown of the Head of this Bird is white ; from the Bill, above the Eyes on each 
Side round the hinder Part of the Head is a broad black Mark fcolloped on the Top ; 
the Jaws, Throat, Breaft, and Belly white, varied with fmall dusky Spots ; the Back of a di- 
lute chefnut Colour fpotted with black ; the quill Feathers black, the outer Edges of the interiour 
of thefe are white. 

The Tail of this is like that of the Magpie, the outermoft Feathers being the fhorteft, the 
other in notable Degrees longer to the middlemoft which are the longeft of all •, of |the outermofh 
Feather on each Side the Top and outer half from the Shafts is white, the next hath lefs white j 
the third only the outer Part of the Tip white, the reft are wholly black ; the Bill is fhort, ftrong, 
and black ; the Tongue broad and divided into Filaments •, the Eyes bigger than in other fmall 
Birds ; the Irides hazel coloured ; the Edges of the Eye-lids yellow ; the Noftrils covered with 
fmall Feathers, 

The Legs, Feet, and Claws black. It frequents Gardens rather than mountainous Places: 
It builds like the Wren, or more artficially, making an Arch over the Neft of the fame Matter 
and Contexture with the reft of the Neft ; fo that the Neft refembles an Egg erefted upon one 
End, a fmall Hole being left in the Side, whereat the Bird goes in and out. By this Means 
both Eggs and Young are fecured from the Injuries of the Air, or other Accidents of Wind, 
Rain, or Cold, and that they may lie foft, Ihe lines the Neft within with Store of Feathers 
and Down, without ftie builds the Sides and Roof of Mofs, Wool, and Webs, curioufly in^ 
terwoven together. 

See Aldrovandus in the feventeenth Book, and fixteenth Chapter of his Ornithology. 



The Crejied Tttfnoufe. Parus criflatus. 

THIS hath a pretty fhort big Bill of a dusky Colour ; its Tongue is broad and divided into 
four Filaments ; its Feet of a lead Colour; the outer Toes for fome Space from their di- 
varication, joined to the middle one ; the Crown of the Head black, the Edges of the Feathers 
being white ; at the hinder Part of the Head begins a black Line, which like a Wreath or Collar 
encompaffes the Neck ; from the lower Mandible of the Bill to this Collar is a black Line pro- 
duced ; the Sides of the Face and middle of the Neck white intermixt v/ith dusky Feathers j 
the middle of the Breaft white ; the Sides, lower Belly, and Thighs fomething red ; the Winos 
and Tail dusky, the Edges of the Feathers of a greenifh white •, the Back of an Olive green. *^ 
Its Weight was two Drams and a half; it is from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail 
five Inches long; Breadth, when the Wings were extended, eight Inches and a quarter; the 
quill Feathers of the Wings are nineteen in Number ; the Tail is compofed of twelve Feathers, 



1& fi^A^ ^ 



m.' 



m- 



7h 



(54) 
The yellow Water 'Wagtail, Motacilla flava. 

Numb. LVIII. 

THESE Birds are of the bignefs of the common black 
and -whitt Water-Wagtail; its Bill is black, ftreight, 
llender and iharp pointed ; its Eyes grey, both upper and 
under Eye-lids white, moreover above the Eye is a white 
Line extended ; the Top of the Head and upper Part of 
the Body is alh-coloured ; the Rump of a dusky yellow; 
the Head (which in Proportion to the Body) is fmall 
and comprefled ; the wing Feathers black, their exteriour 
Edges white, croffed in the middle of the Wings with a 
JLine of white; the Chin and Throat white with a faint 
yellow Caft ; the Breaft and Belly yellow. 

The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers very long, the 
outmoft on each Side is all white ; the two next white on 
the infide and blackifh on the out, the lix middlemoft all 
over blackifli. 

The Legs (which are long) and the Feet (which are 
rough) were of a redifh Colour ; the Claws black ; the 
Hen was of the fame Colour of the Cock, the white on 
the Throat and deep yellow on the Rump excepted. 
Their Food is Flies, Beetles, and other Infeds. 



^&ii 
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2'A^, gn^€£/t 72're/i 



( 55 ) 
The Green Wren. Regulus non Criftatus, 

Numb. LIX. 

ITS Weight two Drams, being in Length, from the 
Tip of the Bill to the End of the Claws or Tail, which 
is all one, fivQ Inches; in Breadth, when the Wings are 
extended, feven Inches. 

The Head, Neck, Back, and Rump of the Cock are 
of a dusky green ; the Chin and lide of the Face under 
the Eyes yellowilh, with a Spot of the fame Colour on 
each Side the Breaft near the fcapular or upper Part of 
the Wing; the Breaft, Belly, and Thighs are very white: 
a yellowifh Line is produced from the Noftrils above the 
Eyes almofl: to the hinder Part of the Head ; the Wings 
have eighteen prime Feathers of a dusky Colour having 
their out Edges green ; the Tail is two Inches long made 
up of twelve Feathers of the fame Colour of the Wings. 

The Bill llender, ftreight, lliarp of a dusky Colour ; 
the upper Mandible fomewhat longer and hooked in the 
Cock, in the Hen not ; the Noftrils large ; the Legs and 
Feet fmall of a dusky amber Colour in the Cock, the 
Hen's black. Its Food is Infe6ts ; it fings like a Graf- 
hopper, and frequents Woods and folitary Place fitting 
on the Tops of Oaks. 

It builds its Neft of Mofs and Straws, lined with Hair 
and a few Feathers: it lays five Eggs all over freckled 
with red Specks. The Hen is of the fame Colours with 
the Cock but more dusky. 



(56) 

The Cajfowary or Emeu. 

Numb. LX. 

TTS Length from the Tip of its Bill to the End of the Claws was 
•^ almofl five Foot ; the Height of its Back from the Ground was two 
Foot iix Inches; from the Knee to the End of its middle Claw twenty 
Inches ; on the fore Part and Top of its Head grew a horny Subilance ; 
the Head and Neck, are bare of Feathers, only thin fet with a hairy 
Down, the Skin under the Down is of a blueifh purple Colour, except 
the lower Part of the back Side of the Neck, which is of a vermilion Co- 
lour, as was alfo the two Wattles or Lobes of FlefL which hung down 
on the lower Part of the Neck almoft as low as the Breaft ; its Bill was 
near four Inches long, of a moderate thicknefs and ftreight ; its Legs are 
thick and flrong five Inches and a half in compafs, covered with many 
broad thick Scales of a yellowifh Colour: they have three Toes all 
{landing forward, for it wants the back Toe ; the under Parts of the | 

Feet and Heel are callous and hard, v/ith which they ftrike with great 
Force, and run very fwiftly ^ in the Place of Wings it had two fmall Pi- 
nions, on each of which grev/ five naked Shafts about two Foot long of 
a fliining black, and fomewhat like thofe of a Porcupme : it had no Tail ; 
the Body large inverted with black Feathers of a peculiar Texture, two 
of them coming out of one Pipe or Flofe, and lying one upon the 
other, the upper being fomewhat the thicker or groffer, being about 
feven or eight Inches long, {lender, with thin-fet Filaments oppofite 
one to another on each Side, and of different Lengths, thofe on the 
Rump being fourteen Inches long ; thefe Feathers had that Form and Si- 
tuation, that the Bird at firft fight feemed to be covered with Hair inftead 
of Feathers refembling the Skin of a black Bear : the Claws were black and 
large, the infide Claw the longeft. Two of thefe Birds were to be ken 
at the George Tavern at Charing-Crofs, to which Place I went to draw 
them. Their Food was Bread, Flelh, Fruit, &'c. which they fwallow 
very greedily, having no Tongue: they were brought by a Dutch Ship 
from Pallampafik in Eajl-hidia. 3 

^ Tie 




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(57) 
The Dottrel Morinellus. 

Numb. LXI, LXII. 

ITS Weight was four Ounces and a quarter; Length, from the Point 
of the Bill to the End of the Tail, ten Inches ; Breadth, when the 
Wings were extended, eighteen Inctes and a half; the Bill, meafuring 
from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth, was an Inch long ; the Head 
elegantly variegated with white and black Spots, the middle Part of each 
iingle Feather being black, above the Eyes was a long whitifli Line; the 
Chin whitifh, the Throat was of a cinereous Colour inclining to a light 
brown, as far as the broad white tranfverfe Line which encompaffes the 
Breaft, and reaches above the Pinion of the Wings on each Side the 
Breaft; under that Line it is of a dark bay or chefnut Colour, ending 
near the Thighs in a broad Shadow of a blackiili brown; the lower 
Belly and Thighs are white : the Wing hath about twenty five prime 
Feathers, of which the firft or outmoft is the longeft, and hath a broad 
ftrong v/hite Shaft, the tenth the fliorteft, from the tenth to the twentieth 
they are almoft equal ; the reft to the twenty fourth are again longer, 
the foregoing than the following, the three outmoft are blacker than the 
reft, which are of a dusky or rediili brov/n- Colour : The leffer Rows of 
the wing Feathers are brown with yellowilli Tips or Edges, the upper 
Part of the Neck and Back are of the fame Colours with them : the Tail 
is compofed of twelve Feathers, two Inches and a half long, the mid- 
diemoft beincr the longeft of the fame colour of the Back: the Legs are 
bare for a little Space above the Knees, of a brownifti Colour, with a 
Tincture of green; the Feet a little darker, the Claws black, the inner 
Toe is joined to the middle Toe at Bottom, the outer by a thick Mem- 
brane as far as the firft Joint ; it wants the back Toe, wherein it agrees 
with the Gree7i Plover: its Bill is ftreight and blackifti. It hath a 
flefhy Stomach, in- which when I had diffeded it, I found fmall black 
Beetles; its Guts were fourteen Inches and a half long. The Cock and 
Hen agree in all the Colours and Marks excepting the black Shade at 
the lower Part of the Breaft, which is the charadleriftick Mark of the 
Cock. Thefe two Birds I received from Sir William Abdy-^ they were 
fent to him from the Peak of Darby. 



(58) 

The Dottrell from Lincolniliirc. 

Numb. LXIII. 

ITS Weight was four Ounces and a half; Length, fronx 
the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, nme 
Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were ex- 
tended, feventeen Inches and three quarters ; the Bill' 
black, about an Inch long ; the Top of the Head finely 
fpotted with white, yellow, and brown ; the Eyes black, the 
Irides white ; over each Eye is a broad white Line reaching 
almoft to the hinder part of the Head (this being a parti- 
cular chara6l:eriflick Note of the Dottrell Kind :) the Breafl:,. 
Belly, Thighs, and under Side of the Tail were white- 
with a Tindlure of faint yellowilh bufF Colour ; the upper 
Side of the Neck brown; the Back, covert Feathers, 
and baftard Wing brown, their out Edges yellow, the 
quill Feathers black, the exteriour Web of the outmofl; 
white ; the upper Side of the middle Feathers of the 
Tail brown, the reft on each Side white. The Legs and 
Feet of a fordid green. It wants the back Toe. 

This Bird I had of J^illiam Lydal, Poulterer, who had, 
it out of Lincolnfloire^ by the Name of Dottrell. 



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(59) 
The common or "white Stork. Ciconia alba; 

Numb. LXIV. 

T is bigger tban the common Hern : its Neck thicker 
and Ihorter having but fourteen Vertebras ia Num- 
ber ; its Bill is longyiharp pointed, and red, the Noflrils 
oblong; the under Mandible black attheBafe; the Pupil 
of the Eye of a dark purpliili Colour ; the Eye-brows 
dusky, under the Eye a Border oi orange Colour, like- 
wife a Spot of the fame Colour on each fide the Chin; 
the Head, Neck, Back, Belly, and covert Feathers of" 
the Wings white; the quill Feathers of the Wings were 
black; the Tail ihort and white ; the Legs and Feet red 
and bare above the Knees; the Claws dusky and iliaped 
like human Nails : their Food is Frogs, Snails, &c. They 
are Natives of Holland, breeding on the Tops of Houfes ; 
they are alfo Birds of Paffage, coming thither in the 
Spring, and going away at Michaelmas, but to what 
Place is uncertain, they not being found in any other 
Part of the known World, and are feldom found in Eng-- 
land in the Summer Time without being driven over by 
a Storm, or brought over by fome curious Perfbn. I 
faw two of thefe Birds at His Grace the Duke of Chan^^ 
dos's at Edger in Middle/ex. 



ml 



& 



( 6o ) 

Tide Crane. Grus. 

-Numb. LXV. 

ITS Length from the point of the Bill to the End of the Tail is al^ 
-*■ moft five Foot; its Weight fometimes ten Pounds; its Bill is ftreight, 
fharp pointed, of a greenifh Colour, near four Inches long, compreffed fide 
ways ; its Tongue broad and horny at the Tip ; the Top of the Head 
dark brown inclining to black, on the back of the Head is a Space or 
Bed of thin-fet Hairs of a red Colour: the Chin and under fide of the 
Neck are of a dusky or blackiili Hue ; the reft of the Head and Neck 
Afh-colour, as is alfo the whole Bird excepting the quill Feathers of 
the Wings ; the Tail is fiiort, and compofed of twelve Feathers all 
cinereous with black Tips, when fpread, making a round Circumference. 

The Wings are very large, the quill Feathers are in Number twenty 
:four, the leffer of which from black incline to ruffet. 

The Legs are black, bare of Feathers for a hand's Breadth above the 
Knees ; the Toes dark brown and very long ; the lower Joint of the 
■outmoft and middle Toe conneded by a thick Membrane. 

That which is moft rare, and efpecially remarkable in this Bird, is 
the conformation of the Windpipe; for entring far into the Breaft-bone 
which hath a great Cavity within to receive it, being there thrice re- 
.fleded goes out again at the fame Hole and fo turns down to the Lungs. 

The blind Guts are five Inches long: the Stomach or Gizzard muf- 
culous as in granivorous Birds ; the Flefli is very favory and well-tafted, 
not to fay delicate. They often come to us in E7igla7id^ efpecially in 
the Fen-Countries in L,i7tcohJhire and CambridgeJJjire^ where there are 
great Flocks of them; but whether they breed in EiJgland or nct^ is not 
determined. Cranes diifer from Her?iSy in that the Claw of the middle 
Toe is not ferrateas in Hems', fecondly, in Bignefs, wherein they ex- 
ceed them; thirdly, in having a fhorter Bill; and fourthly, a m.ufculous 
Stomach or Gizzard : fifthly, two Appendices or blind Guts, whereas 
Herns hsiVQ but one; fixthly, in the ftrange Revolution of the Wind- 
pipe within. 

4 



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( 6i J 

The SpoonUll. Albardeola. 

Numb. LXVI. 

ITS Weight forty five Ounces and a half; its Length, frOm the Tip of the Bill to 
the End of the Claws, was thirty four Inches, to the End of the Tail twenty 
four} the Colour of the whole Body was white like a Swan's: beyond the Eyes 
towards the Bill grow neither Feathers nor Down, as in the Hern and Cormorant y 
the Angle alfo of the lower Chap is bare, which perchance is peculiar and proper to 
this Bird. 

The firft quill Feathers of the Wings are black, of the fecond only the exteriour 
or outer Web half from the Shafts and the Tips of the interiour are black, of the 
third only the Top, and of the fourth yet lefs : in like manner the Tips and Shafts of 
the inferiour of the fecond Row were black ; the Tail is fliort, being but three Inches 
and a half in Length, made up of twelve Feathers. 

The Bill is of a fingular and unufual Figure, plain, deprefl^ed, and broad, near the 
End dilated into an almoft circular Figure of the Likeneis of a Spoon ; whence alfo 
the Bird itfelf is called by the Low 'Dutch, Leplaer, that is Spoon Bill--, the broad 
Part of the Bill is graven with twelve or fourteen Lines or Crevifes, but its inward. 
Surface is fmooth and even, without any fuch Lines or Cravings. 

The Bills of the young ones are of a yellowifli white, of the old ones black ; the 
Tongue is fliarp and little? the Legs half way up the fecond Joint are bare of Fea- 
thers, of a chefnut Colour; the Feet ftrong, the fore Toes joined together by a mem- 
brane, the outmoft and middlemoft to the fecond Joint, the middlemoft and inmoft 
no further than the firft; the Toes and Claws black. 

It had a large Gall, the Guts had many Revolutions, above the Stomach the Gullet 
was dilated into a Bag, whofe inward Surface was rough and uneven, with many- 
papillary Glandules, 

Its Eggs are of the Bignefs of large Hen's Eggs, white and powdered with a few 
fanguine or pale red Spots. 

In a certain Grove at a Village, called Senjenhuys, not far from Leyden in Holland^ 
they build and bread yearly in great Numbers on the Tops of high Trees, where 
are alfo Herns and Night-Ravens, (d^c. when the young ones are almoft fledged, thofe 
that farm the Grove, with Hooks on the Tops of long Poles, pull them down. I 
was obliged to Mrs, Legrand for the Sight of this Bird. 






EL. IX'i 



( 62 ) . ' ■ 

The Night-Raven, Ardea cinerea minor.' 

Numb. LXVII. 

T is fomewhat lefs than tke common He7'n and hath a fliorter- 
Neck; its Bill is of a yellowifh green towards the Bafe; the Point: 
and upper Side of the upper Mandible black, the Nofcrils oblong; the 
Irides of the Eyes of an orange Colour; the green Colour from the Bill 
encompaffes the back Part of the Eyes ending in a Point; a white Line 
is extended from the Bill round the green; the Crown of the Head is 
black, from the hinder part of which it hath a Creft of three white 
Feathers, five Inches long hanging down over the Back, whereby it dif- 
fers from all other Birds; the upper fide of the Neck is of a pale yellowifh. 
brown 3 the Chin white, the under lide of the Neck, BreafI:, and Belly 
whitifh with a faint Tindlure of brown ; the Wings and Tail dark Afh- 
colour, the Edges of the Feathers of a ferrugineous red Colour ; the 
Back of a dark green, inclining to a black ; the Legs and Feet yellow, 
and bare about an Inch above the Knees; the outmoft Toe connedled 
with the middle one by an intervening Membrane from the Divarication to 
the firft Joint; the Claw of the middle Toe ferrate on the inner fide, 
as in the common Hern, 

It hath a great Gall, a large Stomach glandulous within but not flelhy 
or mufculous, in which was found the Shells of Beetles; in the middle 
of the Bone, called the Merry-lhought^ is an Appendix. This Bird 
builds in high Trees near Seve?thiiys in Holland^ and lays white Eggs. 
I was obliged to Sir Thomas Lowther for this curious Bird, and fer 
veral others, 






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( 63 ) ■ 

The Totanus or Red-leg'd Horjeman, 

Numb. LXVIII, LXIX. 

TTS Weight was eight Ounces j the Length, from-, the Point of the 
-^ Bill to the End of the Claws, fixteen Inches and a half; Breadth, 
when the Wings were expanded, twenty four Inches. This Bird is- 
what the Fre?id3 call Chevalier aiix Pieds rouges^ the red-legged- Horfe- 
man), its Bill was about two hiches long and llender, redifh at the Bafe 
and black at the Point, the Noftrils oblong ; the Tongue Iharpj 
flender, and undivided. 

The Top of the Head, and upper Part of the Neck are of a light brown ; 
the middle of the Feathers fomething darker ; the Feathers of the Back, 
and covert Feathers of the Wings in the middle black, then brown and 
edged with white, which continues down to within an Inch and a 
half of the Tail, then all v/hite for about an Inch more, then intervenes 
between that and the Tip of the Tail, a Stripe of brown, then blackj 
and laftly white ; mofl: of the quill Feathers of the Wings are black, 
reaching, when clofed, about a quarter of an Inch farther than the Tail ; 
the Feathers of the baftard Wing are of a dark brown with cinereous 
Edges, and covers the Tail within a quarter of an Inch; the whole under 
Side white. 

The Legs were long, and of a pale redifK orange Colour, bare above 
the Knee; the fore Toes long, the Claws fmall and black; the back 
Toe very fmall, having a very litde Claw. This Bird was £hot by Sir 
Robert Abdy^ on the fandy Bank of a River in EJfeXy and was nof 
much ufed to the Sight of Men, it letting him come within ten Yards 
of it before he fired at it, and did not offer to fly away. The Hen is 
much of the fame Colour of the Cock, the Legs excepted, which are 
of a green Colour, 



l^^ 



( ^4 ) 
The Godwit, or TarweJph. iEgocephalus. 

Numb. LXX. 

TTS Weight was eleven Ounces and a half; Length, from the Point 
•^ of the Bill to the End of the Claws, feventeen Inches and a half; 
Breadth, when the Wings were extended, twenty eight Inches and a half; 
the Feathers of the Head are of a redifh Colour, their middle Parts 
being black,; above and below the Eyes of a pale yeliowiili Tindure; 
the Neck, Throat, and Bread are redifh, with tranfverfe Lines of 
black, edged with pale yellow, the Bill of a fordid white with faint tranf- 
verfe Lines of a blackifh Colour: in the Hen the Throat and Neck are 
grey ; the Rump is white, powderd with blackifh Specks. 

The great Feathers of the Wings are black with white Shafts; this 
Bird had abroad Bar of white acrofs the middle of the firft, fecond, and 
third Feathers, the reft of the firft Row and thofe of the fecond have redifli 
afti-coloured Tips and Edges ; the leiTer covert Feathers of the Wings 
are of like Colour with the Body ; the Tail Feathers are in Number 
twelve, all croffed alternately with black and white Lines; the middle- 
moft, which are the longeft, being three Inches and a quarter, the reft 
on each Side in Order fomewhat fliorter, the exteriour than the interiour. 

The Bill is of a pale dilute redifti Colour at the Bafe, black at the 
Point, longer for the Bignefs of the Bird than the Smpes or WoodcocK^ ; 
the upper Mandible a little longer than the lower ; the Tongue fharp, 
the JSoftrils oblong, the Ears great; the Legs are not very long, naked 
to the middle of the fecond Joint ; the Claws black: the Claw of the 
middle fore Toe is on the iniide thinned into an Edge ; the outer Toe 
is joined to the middle one from the Rife to the firft Joint by a pretty 
thick Membrane of a dusky or dark green Colour. 

It lives and feeks its Food on the fandy Shores by the Sea-ftde, which 
for a great Space are uncovered when the Tide is out, where it walks 
up and down on the Sands in open View like the Gull, 



rh 



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The Barker, 

Numb. LXXL 

THis Bird, when meafured, was from the Point of the BUI to the End 
of the Tail twenty three Inches and a Quarter, to the End of the 
Maws twenty nine and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, 
thirty nine Inches ; the Head and upper part of the Neck cinereous, with, 
fmall black Spots interfperfed here and there ; the Back, covert and fca- 
pular Feathers of the Wings dark, redifh, brown, their Edges and Tips- 
white; the Quill- Feathers black, the Edges of the exterior Webs white;, 
the whole under fide a dusky white, with a Tindure of yellow ; the Tail 
is made up of twelve Ihort Feathers of a dusky brown Colour, regularly 
ftriped with White on both the Webs. 

The Legs long, and bare above Knee, both Legs and Feet are of a^ 
cinereous Colour, with a Tindure of green and dusky yellow ; the hind 
Claw very fliort. 

Its Places of feeding are In the fait Marfhes near the Sea. It is a ti- 
morous Bird, not fuffering any Man to come near it, therefore feeks its 
Food in the Night, moft of the Marfh Birds being nodurnal. I was 
credibly informed by a Man, which goes often to the Decoys, that it 
makes a Nolfe like the barking of a Dog, from which they give it the 
Name of the Barker. I take it to be the Berge of BelloniuSj which ths: 
French call Petit CorlieUy who fays it hath a Cry Hke a Goat It i& 
efteemed a delicate Bird by the French, 



t% C;« ^& 



S 



( 66 ) 

The Water 'Hen or More-Hen. Gall inula chloropus 

major. • 

Numb. LXXII. 

HE Cock weighed fifteen Ounces, the Hen twelve; from the "Point of the Bill 
to the End of the Feet was feventeen Inches and a quarter, to the End of the Tail 
thirteen Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were extended, twenty two 
Inches and a half; the Bill was ftreight about an Inch long; the nether Chap, as far 
as the Angle, of a pale yellow, then red; the upper lefs yellow at the End; about the 
Noftrils, and to the End of the bald Part red; the bald Part is round and ends at the 
Top of the Head, being like that of the Coot^ fave that a Coot\ is white, but this is 
red'; the rednefs on the Bill is as in were plaifiered on, and may be fcraped off; the 
red Part of the Bill is feparated from the yellow by a round Circumference a little 
elevated, fo that in the middle of the Bill it is produced further than on the Sides; 
the Tongue is pretty broad, not cloven, rough at the End ; ihe Irides of the Eyes are 
red, the lower Eye lid is not feathered: [in the young Birds, neither the Bill, nor the 
bald Spot in the Forehead are red^ the Legs are green, the Claws of a dark brown near 
black, indifferently long; the Toes long, as in the Coot, the middle the longefi-, next 
the outmoft, all broader and plainer below than in the other cloven-footed Birds, for 
the ufe of fwimming ; the back Toe is broad, ferving perchance as a Rudder to 
/teer and dire6l their Courfe; the Legs are feathered almoft down to the Knees, be- 
iween the Feathers and the Joint marked with a- red Spot, 

From the Shoulders or fetting on of the Wing, all along its Bafe or Ridge, and to 
the very Ends of the Feathers, runs a line of white; the longer Feathers under the 
Wings are curioufly adorned with white Spots or Lines tending downwards ; the Breaft 
is of a lead Colour; under the Tail are white Feathers; as ic Iwims or walks it often 
flirts up its Tail, and fhews the white, efpecially when it puts down its Head to pick 
tip any thing; the Back and leffer Row of wing Feathers approach to a ferrugineous 
Colour, elfe it is all over blackifli : in the Male the Feathers under the Tail are 
whiter, the Belly more cinereous, and the Back more ferrugineous. 

Its Liver is fmall. Gall-bladder great, the Gall within being of a greenifh black 
Colour. It will feed very far, its Flefli is very well rafted, and even comparable to 
that of Teal It gets its Food on graffy Banks and Borders near Waters, and in the 
very Waters, efpecially if they be weedy, feeding (I believe) on fuch Infedts as it 
finds among the weeds. It builds on low Trees and Shrubs by the Water fides, breeding 
twice or thrice in a Summer, and when the Young ones are grown up, it drives them 
away to flilf"t for themfelves. Ls Eggs are fliarp at one End, white with a Tindlure of 
green, fpotted with redifh fpots ; it ftrikes with its Bill like a Hen; it fits upon Boughs 
and flaggy Places of the Rivers, but thofe only that are thick, and near the Water; it 
Jives about Motes, and great Pools of Water near Gentlemen's Houfes. It fiies with its 
Feet hanging down, it is narrow bodied, and very much comjprcfTed fideways (this is 
common to all of this Kind) contrary to the Duck Kind, whofe Bodies are broad, flat, 
0nd .depreffcd. 



1ZA 




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( 67 ) 

The Jmall Water -Hen. Poliopus Gallinula minor. 

Numb. LXXIII. 

ITS Length, from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, twelve 
-*• Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings are expanded, four- 
teen Inches; Weight three Ounces and three quarters; it is in Shap^ 
like tho. JVater-Railj but lefs. 

The Bill fhorter than either the Rail's or More-hens., compreffed, or 
narrow, fharp-pointed ; the under Mandible and towards the Bafe in the 
upper is redifh or orange Colour, the reft of the Bill dusky ; the Noftrils 
fmall, and of an oblong Figure ; the Irides of the Eyes white, above 
the Eyes on each Side is drawn a line of white. 

The Head is of a dark brown with a Tindlure of red ; the upper 
Side of the neck, Back, and Wings, were of the fame Colour, with 
tranfverfe indented Lines of white at intervals ; the Breaft and Belly of 
a pale yellowifli hair Colour ; on each Side below the Wings, was a Row 
of tranfverfe Lines of black; the lower Part of the Belly, near the Vent, 
was of a fordid redifli Colour. 

The Tail is fliort conftfting of twelve Feathers, of the fame Colour of 
the Quill-Feathers, and what is efpecially remarkable in the Tail is, that 
when fpread, it is not plain as in moft Birds, but notably concave ; the 
middle Feathers longer than the reft, their lateral Edges have fome- 
thing of white. 

The Legs, and Feet are of the fame Colour and Figure, with the 
common Water-He?iSj viz. a fordid green ; the Toes very long, and di- 
vided to the Bottom ; the hind Toe very ftiort. 

This Bird was brought me by William Ljdal^ from Newgate-marlet^ 
which he bought there amongft other wild Fov/l. 






lit 



( 6S ) 

The Sanderlingj called alfo Curwillet ahmt Penfance in 

Cornwal. 

Numb. LXXIV. 

TT weighs two Ounces. Its Length from the point of the Bill to the 
i end of the Claws is eight Inches and a half, to the end of the Tail 
but eight Inches ; its Breadth when the Wings are extended iixteen Inches y 
it is rather long than round-bodied. 

The Bill is ftreight, black, flender, an Inch long; the upper Man- 
dible a little longer than the nether ; the Tongue extended to the end of 
the Bill ,• the Noftrils oblong ; the Ears great j the Legs, Feet and Claws 
black ; and which is efpecially remarkable, it wants the back Toe ; the 
. fore Toe disjoined from the very rife. 

The Head is fmall, party-coloured, of cinereous brown and black ; the 
Neck, middle of the Back, the Shoulders and fcapular Feathers are of a 
lovely brown Colour; in fome various, of black and white, and in others oi 
black and a{h-colour ; the Tail is of the fame Colour, with white Edges. 

Each Wing hath twenty two Quill-Feathers ; the four outmoft (except- 
ing the Shafts which are white) all of a dark Colour, almofl black ; the 
reft have their upper Halves, as far as they appear ; above the fecond 
Row, brown or dusky Colour, the lower white ; howbeit thefe Colours do 
not divide all the Feathers equally, but from the fifth the white is gra- 
dually increafed, fo that in the twentieth it takes up almoft the whole 
Feather. The next following after the tenth have alfo their Tips white ; 
the firft row of covert Feathers (next the Quills) have white Tipsj which 
when the Wing is fprcad, make a long tranfverfe white Line, broader and 
feroader, by Degrees from the beginning ; the Feathers near the Ridge of 
the Wing, and on the outmoft Joynt, are all dusky; in the Cocks almoft 
black, of the fame Colour with the middle of the Back ; the Wings when 
clofed reach as far, or further than the Tail itfelf, which is (Lort of about 
two Inches long, confifting of tv^elve Feathers. 

The whole Belly, and under fide of the Wings, as white as Snow ; in- 
fome the Breaft is fpotted, or clouded with brown, in others no Spots; the 
blind Guts are an Inch and half long ,• the Stomach not very mufculous. 
Thefe Birds live on the fandy Shores of the Sea; there is a great many of 
them on the Sea Coafts of Cornwall. The 



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(69) 
The great Sea-Loon or T>iver. Colymbus maximus. 

Numb. LXXV. 

ITS Weight was three Pounds four Ounces ; its Length from the Point 
of the Bill to the End of the Claws, twenty feven Inches ; Breadth 
when the Wings were expanded, three Foot eight Inches ; the Bill, from 
the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth, was two Inches three Quarters long; 
the Feathers invefting the whole Body were fine, foft, and thick ; the 
Head and Neck brown; the Back darker ; the Sides and lower Belly near 
the Tail dusky; the Bread and Belly of a Silver Colour. It wholly wants 
the Tail ; each Wing hath about thirty Quill»Feathers, of which the out- 
mofl twelve are blackifh; the Tip of the thirteenth is white; and the 
Tops of the following, in order more and more to the twentieth ; after 
which the next four are wholly white ; the twenty fifth towards the Tip is 
brown, and in the twenty fixth the white Ends ; the lefTer Rows of Wing- 
Feathers underneath are white. 

The Bill is redifh, narrow, compreffed fide-ways, about the Point 
whitifh; the Tongue long, and a little cloven; the Eyesof a dark Coloufj 
with fome mixture of red ; its Claws were broad like the Nails of a Man's 
Hand, black on one fide, on the other of a pale blew or afii-colour; the 
outmoft Toe the longeft ; the Legs broad, flat, ferrate behind, with a 
double Row of Afperities ; the Toes are broad, bordered on each fide witli 
appendant Membranes, but not web'd together. 

It hath no Labyrinth on the Wind-pipe : That we have defcribed had a 
great Gall, a large Stomach, almoft round, and therein was found Sea 
Weeds and Fifli Bones: This Bird I had from ^ii Thomas Abdy^ who took 
it alive in a Net. 



T 7he 



( 70 ) . 

The Dohchich Colymbus minor. [ 

Numb. LXXVI. 

THE Shape of its Body is like that of the I'eal, but lefier by ahnoft a third Part ; 
its Weight was feven Ounces and three quarters; Length, from the Tip of the 
Bill to the End of the Claws, ten Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were 
extended, was fixteen Inches and a half; its Bill, from the Point to the Angles of th& 
Mouth, is one Inch, ftreight, (harp, almoft like a Thrufi's Bill, thicker at the Head, 
.and leflening by Degrees to the Point ; the upper Chap black, excepting only its Tip 
and Sides, which are of a white or pale yellow, as is alfo the whole lower Mandible. 
The Tongue is long, fharp, like the Bill, and cloven ; the Noftrils are a little remote 
from the Feathers ; the Eyes great with hazel coloured Irides; the whole Body is in- 
verted with a thick and foft Plumage or Down, efpecially on the under Side; its Colour 
on the Back is a dusky or dark brown, on the Belly a white or rather filver Colour j 
the Chin white, the Head and Neck darker than the Belly, lighter than the Back; the 
Throat and Sides of the Neck are a little red ; the lower Belly of a fordid dusky Co- 
lour; the Thighs have a little mixture of red ; the Neck is flender, fcarce [an hand's 
Breadth long ; its__ Wings are fmall and concave, each having twenty fix Quill-Feathers, 
the twelve outmoft are of a moufe dun or blackifh brown; the interiour to the twenty 
third party coloured, the outer Webs being dusky, the inner partly white, the white 
Part being in the nearer to the Body, broader, in the more remote Feathers, narrower ; 
as for the lefTer Row of Wing-Feathers, thofe above are black, thole beneath white; 
h hath no Tail at all, but yet hath the Rump-glandules, though leffer than ordinary, 
out of which fprings a Brufli, or Tuft of Feathers, as in other Birds; the Legs are fi- 
tuate very backwards at the End of the Body, made rather for fwimming than walk- 
ing (fo that it cannot walk but with the Body ered: almoft perpendicularly) comprefTed 
or flat, of a fordid green Colour, ferrate behind with a double Row of Afperities ; 
the Soles of the Feet are black; the Feet are divided. into three broad Toes, finned on 
each fide with lateral Membranes, having thin, broad, blunt Claws like human Nails, yet 
are the Toes joined together by intervening Membranes from the Divarication to the 
firfl Joint ; it hath a fmall back Toe, finned in like Manner on each Side, two blind 
-Guts of a moderate Length, no Labyrinth on the Wind-pipe, a membranaceous Stomach, 
ilrong mufculous Thighs, by the help whereof it fwims very fwiftly, diving down to 
the Bottom, and rifing again at Pleafure. From the Make and Conformation of its 
Parts, it moves with more Eafe and Expedition under Water, than either upon the Sur- 
face of the Water, or upon the Land, As foon as it is rifen above Water, it holds up 
its Head, looks about it, and with wonderful Celerity plunges it felf under Water again; 
it can hardly raife itfelf up out of the Water, but when it is once gotten upon the 
Wing, it can hold out flying a long time. The Stomach of one difleded, was full of 
Grais and Weeds; Bellonii:s faith, it willingly feeds upon Fiflies, being roafted fmells 
very ftrong, and is not very agreeable to the Tafte. 



77j 



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( 71 ) 

The Fhmmant, Phoenicopterus. 

Numb. LXXVII. 

JTS Length, from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Claws was four 
•^ Foot ten Inches and a half; Breadth four Foot; the Legs fixteen 
Inches from the Knee to the end of the middle Claw ; its Bill five Inches 
and a Quarter long, of a lingular Shape; the upper Mandible is flat and 
broad, crooked and toothed ; the lower thicker than the upper ; the Tip 
black, in the^young Birds of a dark blew. 

It is two Years before it arrives to its perfect Colour, at which time it 
is entirely red, except the prime Feathers of the Wings, which are black, 
when it is at its full bignefs ; its Weight is two Pounds Hx Ounces and a 
half; its Legs are long, and of a red Colour, bare of Feathers a good 
way above the Knees ; the Toes webbed together ; the Claws black. 

Thefe Birds make their Nefts on Hillocks in {hallow Water, on which 
they fit with their Legs extended downward. They breed on the Coafts of 
Cuba and the Bahama Iflands, and frequent the fait Water; a Man, by con- 
cealing himfelf from their fight, may kill great Numbers of them, for they 
will not rife at the report of a Gun ; neither is the fight of thofe killed 
clofe by them, fuflicient to terrify the reft, and warn them of the Danger; 
but they ftand gazing, and. as it were aftonifhed, till they are moft or all 
of them killed. When they feed (which is always in fhallow Water) by 
bending their Neck, they lay the upper part of their Bill next the Ground, 
their Feet being in continual Motion up and down in the Mud ; by which 
they raife a fmall round fort of Seed or Grain, refembling Millet, which 
they receive into their Bill ; and as there is a Necellity of admitting into 
their Mouths fome Mud, Nature has provided the Edges of their Bill 
with line Teeth like thofe of a Comb, with which they retain the Food, 
and rejed the Mud that is taken in with it. This Account Mr. Cateshy 
had from Perfons of good Credit, but cannot politively affirm it to be 
true, having never feen them feed ; neither doth he contradid the Opi- 
nion of their feeding on Fifh, Nature having made fome of our Birds, 
viz. the Shovelar^ with an exquifite fine toothed Bill, which preys on Fifh, 
which I have found in the Stomachs of thofe I have differed. This Bird. 
I had fent me by TVilliam Archer Efq; who had it from Sir Robert TFal- 
poles, where it had been kept alive.in the Kitchen fome time. 

7hs 



( 72 ; 

The Puffin or Coulternih. Pica marina. 

Numb. LXXVIII, LXXIX. 

IT is not fo big as the tame Duck; its Length, from the Point of the Bill to the End of the- 
Feet, twelve Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, twenty fix Inches ; its Bill is (hort, 
broad, and comprefTed fide-ways, contrarily to the Bills o{ Ducks, of a triangular Figure, and 
ending in a (harp Point; the upper Mandible arcuate, and crooked at the Point, where it is 
joined to the Hea'd a certain callous Subftance encompaflles its Bafe, as in Parrots. Between 
this callous Body, and the firft Furrow are long Holes; the Bill is of two Colours, near the 
Head cinereous or livid, towards the Point red: it hath three Furrows or Groves imprefl^ed in it, 
one in the livid Part, two in the red; the Mouth is yellow within, the Eyes grey or a(h-co!oured, 
the Eye-lids are ftrengthened with a black Cartilage, in the lower is a carnous protuberance of 
a livid Colour, in the upper a fmall triangular Excrefcency of the fame Colour. 

The Top of the Head, Neck, and Back are black; the Breaft and Belly white, a Ring or 
Muffler of black produced from the Neck, encompaflTes the Throat; the Sides of the Head from 
the Crown to the now mentioned Muffler are v/hite, with a Mixtute of yellow and Afh-colour,. 
fo that the Eyes and Ears are included in thefe white Spaces ; the Wings are fmall made up of 
fhort Feathers, neverthelefs near the Superficies of the Water they fly very fwiftly ; their Flight 
is helped by dipping or wetting their Wings as they fly ; the Tail is two Inches long, made up 
of twelve Feathers all black ; the Stomach within is yellow, the Liver is divided into two Lobesjn 
with a Gall annexed ; the Cock is fomewhat darker than the Hen. 

The Legs and Feet are yellowifh red, or orange Colour, fituate backwards as in the Doukers 
or Loons, fo that the Bird (tands or walks almoft perpendicularly eredted upon the Tail ; it 
wants the back Toe, the inmoft of the fore Toe is the fhorteft ; the Claws are of a dark blue 
inclining to black. 

They build no Neft, but lay their Eggs upon the bare Ground ; they breed in Holes under 
Ground, which either they dig for themfelves or borrow of the Rabbits, whom they drive out 
and difpoflfefs of their Burrows. They lay but one Egg a piece ("which is efpecially remarkable^ 
but if you take away the Egg out of any Ned, that Bird will lay a fecond, if you move that, a 
third, and fo on to the fifth. The Eggs are very large for the Bignefs of the Bird, even bigger 
than Hens or Ducks, of a redifh or fandy Colour, much fharper at one End than Hen's Eggs, 
and blunter at the other. In the Iflands of Man, BarcJfey, Caldey, Farn, Godreve, Sillies, and 
other fmall defert Iflands near the Sea-fhore they breed yearly in great Numbers ; and not only 
in Iflands, but alfo on Rocks and Cliffs by the Sea-fide, about Scarborough, Tenby, and elfe- 
where. 

In the Summer Time they abide in the Places mentioned, being bufy in breeding, and feeding 
their Young. In the beginning of Autumn they fly away, returning again the next Spring ;: 
"whither they fly or where they fpend their Winter is not known. 

It is reported, that in the latter End of March, or Beginning of April, there come over firfl:fome 
Spies or Harbingers, which fl;ay fome two or three Days, as it were to viev/ and fearch out the 
Places they ufed to breed in, to fee whether all be well ; which done they depart, and about the 
beginning of May return again with the whole Troop of their Fellows ; but if the Seafon happen 
to be ftormy, or tempelluous, and the Sea troubled, there are abundance of them found caft upon 
the Shores, lean and perifhed with Famine ; for they cannot, unlefs the Sea be calm, either pro- 
ceed i'n their Journey, or filh for their living. In Auguft they all depart, nor are they feen any 
where about our Coafts till the next Spring, 



The 



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T/ie J^^/fl/i 07' Ctnil^rnc 



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TAe CtcA 67ren/an^ Do^^ 



( 73 ) 
The Greenland Dove-Cock. 

Numb. LXXX. 

THIS is Bird like the Coulternel but lefs ; its Bill longer, 
not compreffed fideways, fliarp-pointed, a little crook- 
ed at the End, and prominent; the Eyes black, the Irides 
yellow ; it hath a large white Spot on the covert Feathers 
of each Wing, elfe it is all over black, of the Colour of 
the Coot. In each Wing was twenty feven Quill-Feathers ; 
the Legs and Feet were of a beautiful red Colour ; I found 
this to be a Cock by diffedling of him. 

The Bill of the Hen is of a jet black, and like that of 
the Cock ; the Irides of the Eyes yellow ; the Head, Neck, 
Back, covert Feathers of the Wings and Tail are of a dusky 
black, the Quill Feathers more dilute. 

The whole under fide of the Belly, as far as the lower 
part of the Neck, and under the Wings white. 

The Eegs and Feet are of an alli-colour ; the Toes are 
webbed together ; thefe Birds want the back Toe ; they 
build in the Holes of R ocks and lay two Eggs, and are found 
in plenty on the Coafts of Scotland and ff^ales. See the 
Hen of this Kind in Vol. I. Plate the 85th. 






U The 



( 74 ) 

The Cormorant] Corvus aqnaticus. 

Numb. LXXXI. 

TTS Weight was three Pounds and three Ounces; the Length, frons 
"■• the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, two foot four Inches ; 
Breadth three Foot fix Inches: in Bignefs it is not much inferiour to a 
Goofe; it is of a dusky obfcure brown Colour all over the Body, ex- 
cepting under the Chin, and round the Eyes it is of a fordid white in- 
clining to a yellow : the Bill is like that of the Shag:, three Inches and 
a half long, hooked at the End, of a redifh yellow ; the upper Mandible 
having fharpe Edges, the Sides of the lower Mandible comprefTed and 
broad ; the Tongue very fmall hardly to be perceived ; the Eyes fituate 
nearer the Aperture of the Mouth than in moft other Birds, having ci- 
nereous Circles about the Pupil. 

The Tail is compofed of fourteen ftiff hard Feathers five Inches and 
a half long, when fpread, ending in a round Circumference, being con- 
cave on the under fide, not being in any Part covered with Feathers 
either above or beneath : the Legs are ftrong, thick, but very fhort, 
broad, and flat; (at leaft in the Young ones) the Feet and Claws 
black, covered with a Skin, not divided into perfect Scales, but can- 
cellated. It hath four Toes in each foot all webbed together by a broad 
black Membrane, like the ElKs. 

The Stomach is membranaceous, but its upper Part thick and glan- 
dulous 3 within were Bones of Fifiies which it had devoured, and one 
Fifii entire, which was a fmall Codfifi:i; alfo many little long blackife 
Worms of the Figure of Earth -Worms, Mr. Willoughby alfo found the 
like Worms in the Stomach of a Young one, which he got at Sevenhuys 
in Hollafidj where many of this Kind build upon Trees: the Guts 
were long having many Revolutions; the blind Guts very fmall, the 
Liver large divided into two Lobes, the right one the bigger. It is 
infefled v/ith Lice of a pale red Colour having a great black Spot in the 
middle of their Backs, 



The 



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( 75 ) 
The cloven-footed Gull, 

Numb. LXXXII. 

ITS Weight was feven Ounces and a half; the Length, 
from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, 
was fixteen Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings 
were extended, thirty fix Inches; Its Bill was ftreight 
and black at the Point, the reft of a yellowilh white Co- 
lour, having no Nob on the lower Mandible, in which 
it differs from moft of the other Gulls ; the Noftrils ob- 
long ; the Eyes black ; the Flead, Throat, Breaft, Belly, 
and Thighs were of a fordid yellowiili white, clouded and 
fpotted with a blueifh Afh-colour on the Breaft and upper 
fide of the Neck. The Wings were fomething longer 
than the Tail ; the Number of prime Feathers in each 
Wing was about twenty eight, the firft four of a dusky 
brown, the reft of the quill Feathers of a light brownilh 
Colour with cinereous Edges, as was alfo the Back and 
all the covert Feathers of the Wings ; the under fides of 
the fame Colour but more dilute. 

The Tail was five Inches long, made up of twelve 
Feathers of a dusky brown Colour, with a broad black 
Border at the Ends : the Legs were bare above the fe- 
cond Joint ; both Legs and Feet of a pale fea green ^ Co- 
lour ; the Toes of a more dusky green inclining to an 
Aili-colour, bordered on each Side with lateral Mem- 
branes and joined at the Bottom ; the Claws black. Three 
of thefe Birds I bought of a Poulterer, viz. two Hens and 
one Cock, but could not perceive any DilFerence in the 
Shape, Bignefs, or Colours of them. 

The 



( 76 ) 
The great grey GuIL Larus albo-cioereus torque cioereo. 

Numb. LXXXIII. 

ITS Weight was one Pound fourteen Ounces and a half; Length, from the Point of 
the Bill to the End of the Tail, twenty one Inches and a half ^ its Breadth, when 
the Wings were extended, fifty three Inches ; its Colour on the Back and upper iide of 
the Neck were grey mixed with whitifii and brown ; the Feathers on the Back are 
black in the middle and afli-coloured about the Edges ; the Rump Feathers incumbent 
on the Tail are for the moft part white, only fpotted in the middle with brown -^ the 
forepart of the Head, Throat, Breaft, Belly, and Thighs were white. 

Each Wing hath thirty Quill-Feathers of a dark brown, in fome black, the leiTer 
Rows of wing Feathers were alfo brown ; the Tail is fix Inches and a half long con- 
lifting of twelve Feathers, the outmoft Tips of the upper fide of which were white, 
then fucceeds a crofs Bed or Bar of black of about two Inches broad, the under fide 
is varied with tranfverfe Bars of a dusky Colour, 

The Bill is almoft three Inches long, all black, the upper Chap bending a little 
downward and as it were hooked ; the lower, between the Angle and the Tip under- 
neath, bunches out into a Knob; the Noflrils oblong, the Eyes grey, the Neck fliort, 
the Head great, which in walking or ftanding flill it always draws down to its Shoulders, 
as do alfo all other Gulis, fo that one would think they had no Neck. 

Its Legs and Feet are of an orange Colour ; the Claws black, that of the middle Toe 
fliarp on the infide. 

It hath a huge Liver divided into two Lobes, a Gall annexed to the right Lobe, The 
Stomach more mufculous than in carnivorous Birds ; the blind Guts fhort but little, yet 
turgid and full of Excrements. 

The Cor7iip Men relate for a Truth, that this Bird is wont to perfecute and ter- 
rify the Sea- Swallows, and other fmall Gulls fo long till they mute for fear; and then 
catches their Excrements before they fall into the Water, and greedily devours them as 
a great Dainty : but I rather believe, they take from them the Fifh which they have be- 
fore taken, caufing them to caft it up out of their Stomachs, which example I have 
feen in the Wejl-Iridies, of the Bird called the Man of War and the Booby ; which lafl: as 
foon as he has taken a Prey, the other perfecutes him till he has thrown it up, which 
he catches in the Air immediately. 



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( 77) 

The white Gulh 

Numb. LXXXIV. 

ITS Weight was eight Ounces and three quarters ; the 
Length, from the Point of the Bill to the End of 
the Tail, was fifteen Inches and a half; the Breadth, 
when the Wings were expanded, thirty fix Inches ; its 
Bill redifli and fomething bending at the Point, the lower 
Mandible bunching out into an Angle ; the Noftrils oblong ; 
the Eyes black, the Irides white with aCircleof Aih-co- 
lour ; the Head, Throat, Breaft, and Belly white, with a 
faint Tin6l:ure of yellow ; the Back and covert Feathers 
of the Wings afh-colour ; the prime Feathers of the 
Wings black, with their Edges and Tips white, fhooting 
beyond the Tail about two Inches ; the Tail was five Inches 
long, compofed of twelve white Feathers of equal Length. 

The Legs and Feet were of a fordid green, bare above 
the Knees ; the back Toe fmall, the Claws fmall and of 
an obfcure dusky Colour. 

This Gull and moft of the fmall Kind are very ufe- 
full in Gardens to deftroy Worms, and Infedts: it was 
brought me alive. I kept it fome time, feeding it 
fometimes on fmall Pieces of Liver and the Guts of 
Chickens ; at other Times with fmall Sprats, and Bits of 
other frefli Filh. 



X The 



77?^ hrovju Gull. 

Numb, LXXXV. 

ITS Weight was eight Ounces ; Length, from the point 
of the Bill to the End of its Tail, fixteen Inches; 
Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, three Foot two 
Inches. It is not like a Gull in any thing fave the Bill 
and Legs ; the Bill is of a horn-colour, one Inch and a 
half long, and of a moderate Thicknefs ; the Tip which 
is hooked, black ; the Noftrils oblong ; the Eyes little ; 
the Irides yellow ; the Head, Neck, Back, and covert 
Feathers of the Wings of a dusky brown; the Breaft and 
Belly more dilute with tranfverfe Lines of brown ; the 
prime Feathers of the Wings black, as was alfo the Tail ; 
the Legs and Feet of a dusky yellowifli Colour, and bare 
above the Knees ; the back Toe fmall, the Claws black. 

This Bird was fent me by Sir Robert Ahdy. It was 
found dead in his Park, and by its Leannefs it was fup- 
pofed to have loft it felf It feems to be a non-defcript 
Bird : the Cepphus of u4Urovandm^ mentioned by TViU 
loughhy^ Tag. 351. has fomewhat like its Bill, but differs 
in other Points quite. 



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( 79 ; 

The hrown headed Gull. 

Numb. LXXXVI. 

ITS Weight was feven Ounces and a half; Length, 
from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, 
was fixteen Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings were ex- 
tended, thirty eight Inches: its Bill vv^as red, fliarp -pointed 
and a little bending; the under Mandible bunches out 
into an Angle ; the Eyes are black, the Irides red, and 
encompalFed with a broad Circle of white Feathers ; the 
Head and Throat were of a browniili Colour, towards 
the Neck more dusky, as it were ending in a Shadow. 
The whole Body is white with a Tin6l:ure of pale yel- 
lowifh green, excepting the Back and outer covert Fea- 
thers of the Wing, wiiich were afli-coloured ; the prime 
Feathers of the Wings were black, their exteriour Webs 
white. 

The Tail was almoft five Inches long, made up of 
twelve white Feathers of equal Length. 

Its Legs and Feet were of the fame Colour of the Bill ; 
the Claws black, crooked, and fmall; the back Toe fmall. 
Thefe Birds are very frequent in the River Thames near 
Grave/end. 



MM 
WW 



The 



( 8o ) 

The Coddy Moddy, Larus hybernus. 

Numb. LXXXVII. 

IT S Weight was ilxteen Ounces ; its Length, from the Point of the 
Bill to the End of the Claws, eighteen Inches ; Breadth, when 
the Wings were extended, forty four Inches. The lower part of the 
Throat is a little dusky, eife the under fide of the Body is all white ; 
the Head is white, in the hind part cinereous, having a tranfverfe black 
Spot behind the Eye, and another large Mark like a Crefcent on the 
back part of the Neck, encompaffing it above half way ; the Back ci- 
nereous; the fcapular Feathers varied with black Spots; the Rump is 
white, the Tail live Inches long made up of twelve Feathers ; the ex- 
treme Tips black, the reft of the Tail white ; the outmoft Quill-Fea- 
thers of the Wings are black with cinereous Tips and Edges ; the lefTer 
covert Feathers of the Wings are of a mixt Colour of cinereous and 
black, thofe on the under fide of the Wing are white. 

The Bill is more than two Inches long, the upper Mandible of a 
brownifh Afli-colour, longer than the nether and crooked at the End; 
the nether underneath black, and bunching out into an Angle or Knob, 
as in other great Gul/s ; the Tongue white, cloven, reaching to the End 
of the Bill; the Eyes hazel-coloured, and furniflied with nidlating Mem- 
branes; the Ears great; the Legs and Feet of a dusky greenifh Colour; 
the back Toe little, armed with a fmall Claw, the inner fore Toe the 
leaft; the Claws black, that of the middle Toe fharp on the inner fide. 

The Guts were long, being twenty eight Inches, having many fpiral 
Revolutions; the Stomach mufculous; the Liver divided into two Lobes, 
the Gall-bladder large. It frequents moift Meadows, Fens, and Rivers, 
and fometimes plowed Lands many Miles diftant from the Sea. 






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( 8i ) 

The greater Sea Swallow, Hirundo marina majof. 

Numb. LXXXVIII. 

IT S Weight was four Ounces and three quarters ; its Length, from the Point of the 
Bill to the End of the Tail, was iixteen Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings were ex- 
panded, two Foot eight Inches : its Bill is long, the upper Mandible ftreight, the under 
Mandible bunches out into an Angle, at the Tip redifh, the reft black; its Mouth 
within redifh, its Tongue fharp, its Crown black being terminated by a Line drawn 
from the Noftrils through the Eyes to the Neck and hanging down loofe behind, fo 
that above the Eyes the Head is black, under the Eyes white; the Chin, Throat, 
Breaft, and Belly are white with a faint Tindlure of yellow ; the upper part of the 
Neck, Top of the Back, and Wings were cinereous or afti-colour, tindured with a for- 
did yellow. 

The Number of Quills In each Wing are twenty nine ; the outmoft ten whereof 
have their outer Webs running out into fharp Points, the reft their inner ; the exte- 
riour Web of the firft or outmoft Feather is blackifh or dusky; the Shaft white, and 
of a notable Thicknefs; the Tips of the following, till the tenth, and the infide of all, 
white : the Tail is compofed of twelve Feathers, the outmoft being fix Inches long, and 
having their exteriour Webs from a cinereous to a dusky black, the two middle ones 
fcarce three Inches long and white, the reft having their outer Webs cinereous, their 
inner white. 

The Legs and Feet dark afh-colour; the back Toe fmall, the fore Toes web'd to- 
gether as far as the Claws ; the Craw large, in which was found a Gudgeon ; the Giz- 
zard full of Fifh-bones; the Guts twenty Inches long, the blind Guts very fhort. 

Thefe Birds flock together, and build and breed on Iflands uninhabited near to the 
Sea-fhores many together in the fame Quarter. They lay three or four Eggs either on 
the Ground or a Neft made of Reeds ; their Eggs are fmall at one End, white and 
fpotted with a few black Spots, their Young are alfo fpotted. They often frequent 
Kivers and great Pools of Water far diftant from the Sea; in Wales they call them 
Spurresy and in other Places of England, they are called Scrays, from their being very 
noify and clamorous. This Bird 1 had from my honourable and good Friend Sir Ro" 
bertAbdy^ out oi Effex. 



thi 



( 82) 
The lejfer Sea Swallow, Hirundo marina minor. 

Numb. LXXXIX, XC. 

ITS Weight was two Ounces and a half; Length, from the Point of 
the Bill to the End of the Tail, ten Inches ; Breadth, when the 
Wings were extended, twenty four Inches; the Bill, Head, Neck, and 
Breaft were black, excepting a (ew light cinereous Feathers about the 
Eyes; the Back, Wings, and Tail were of an Afh-colour, the two laft 
darker towards their Ends; the Belly and Thighs of a fordid white; the 
Wings are longer than the Tail, two Inches; the Tail is fix Inches long 
compofed of twelve Feathers, the middlemoft being the fhorteft, the 
reft gradually encreafing to the outmoft (reprefenting the Tail of a 
Swallow) from which Charadieriftick, I fuppole it took its Name, as 
alfo that of its fwift Flight,, and continually keeping itfelf on the Wing; 
when it perceives a fmall Fifli, it plunges itfelf into the Water, and catch- 
ing up its Prey flies away immediately. 

The Legs and Feet are red and bare of Feathers half way above the 
fecond Joint, the Claws black. 

The Hen is exactly fhaped like the Cock, but fomething lefs ; the 
Bill and Top of the Head black, and a Spot of the fame Colour between 
the Bill and the Eyes ; the reft of the Head, Throat, Breaft, and Belly, 
white ; half the upper part of the Neck, the Back, Wings, and Tail 
were of a dark brownifh Afh-colour; the Legs of a dirty yellow, and 
bare of Feathers half way above the fecond Joint. 

Its Guts were half a yard long; in the Stomach when difTeded were 
found Bones of Fifties and fome fmall Fifhes not digefted. Thefe two 
Birds I had from my good Friend Sir Robert Abdy. 



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T/ic ??l(i/r<nria>i {revp:^. 



( 83 ; 

The Mofcovian Gander and Goofe. 

Numb. XCI, XCII. 

TH E Weight of the Gander was fourteen Pounds ; Length, from 
the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail, was forty two Inches 3 
Breadth, when the Wings were expanded, fixty Inches. They are bigger 
than the common Goofe^ being majeftick and ftately Birds. The top 
of the Head, and upper fide of the Neck are of a dark brown Co- 
lour, the fides of the Face and Neck more dilute. 

The Bill orange Colour ; on the Bafe of the upper Mandible was a 
large round Knob of the fame Colour, the Bottom of which toward 
the Head black, bordered with white ; the Irides of the Eyes of a lovely 
gold yellow, the Pupil black, under the Bill is a large Wallet or Bag ; 
the upper part of the Back is of a dusky brown, the exteriour Edges 
of the Feathers more dilute; the reft of the Body and Wings white, 
except two or three dark brown Feathers, on the upper fide of the Tail; 
the Legs and Feet were of a beautiful orange Colour, the Claws black. 

The Head, Neck, and Breaft of the Gooje were of a dilute dusky 
Colour; the Back, Wings, and Thighs of a dark dusky brown, the ex- 
teriour Edges of the Feathers of a fordid white ; the Bill was of the 
fame Colour of the Gander %^ the Knob not fo large ; the Irides of 
the Eyes yellow, the Pupil black, the Belly white, the Legs of an 
orange Colour. 

Thefe fine Birds I had of a Mofcovian Merchant, who fent for 
them to that Country with a Defign to propagate them here, whicL 
he did and fold them at a great Price. 






Tie 



( H) 
The Ganfer, 

Numb. XCIII. 

THIS Bird may be clafled with thofe of the Goofe 
Kind, the Biii and Feet being like them ; the Top 
and back Part of the Head, Breaft, Belly, and Thighs 
were of a pale yellowilli buff Colour, with a light Tinc- 
ture of redifli brown, here and there in Spots, excepting 
a large Spot of redilh brown on the middle of the Breaft ; 
the Bill was red, flat, and toothed like that of the Goofe ; 
the Irides of the Eyes white ; the forepart of the Head 
round the Eyes redilli brown, with a Ring of the fame 
Colour, round the upper part of the Neck, joining to the 
Head ; the back part of the Head and Back were of a 
redilh brown Colour ; the covert and fcapular Feathers 
of the Wings white, the Quill-Feathers black ; the Tail 
Ihort and black : it was web-footed, its Legs very long, 
and bare above Knee, both Legs and Feet of a red Co- 
lour. Its Food was the fame with that of Geefe, eating 
Grafs and Corn. My Lord Burlington was pleafed to 
give me two of thefe Birds, from one of which, 1 took 
this Pour tray. The Difference between the Cock and 
Hen could not be diftinguiHied, neither by the Colours or 
Shape, but only by the Cock's running to the Hen with 
open Wings, clafping or embracing her round with them. 
I could not find any other Name for them with the Poul- 
terers, but that of Ganfer. This Bird comes the nearefl: to 
Mr. IViJloughhys Gambo-Goofe, the Spurs in the Wings ex- 
cepted, Pag. 360. Tab. 71. 

The 



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85) 

The Sea Pheafant Cock and Hen. Anas caudacuta' 

Numb. XCIV, ^CV. 

IT S Weight was one Pound and eight Ounces ; Length, from the Point of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail, twenty eight Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, 
thirty feven Inches j its Head is {lender j its Neck long for this Kind; of equal Breadth 
almoft throughout; the nether Mandible wholly black, the upper pardy blue partly 
black, "Jtz. black in the middle, on the Sides beneath the Noftrils blue, black alfo ac 
the Corners of the Mouth, at the very Tip, and in the lower Edges near the Tip; the 
Colour of the Plumage on the whole Head is ferrugineous or brown, behind the Ears 
tindured with a light purple, beyond the Ears on each Side from the hinder part of 
the Head begins a Line of white, which paffes down the fides of the Neck to the 
Throat; all the Feathers between or adjacent to thefe Lines are black; under the 
black the Neck is afh-coloured, then curioufly varied with tranfverfe black and white 
Lines, as is alfo almoft the whole Back; the long fcapular Feathers are black in their 
middle parts, but the exteriour have their outer Webs almoft to the Shafts black, their 
inner (which are much the narrower) varied with white and black with a mixture of 
brown in Lines; all the nether part. Neck, Breaft, and Belly to the very Vent are 
white; the Thighs are light afti-colour varied with black Specks; the Feathers under 
the Tail are black ; the Wings, of which the ten outmoft Quills and moft of the co- 
vert Feathers are of a dark cinereous inclining to a brown; in fome Birds the interiour 
Edges of the feventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth Quills are white; the fecond Decade of 
Quills is parti-coloured, for the Tips of all are white, or from white to red, then in the 
outer Web fucceeds a black Line, the remaining Part thereof, as far as appears beyond 
the incumbent Feathers, being of a glittering purple Colour; the interiour Webs of all 
are of the fame Colour with the reft of the Feathers, of the following the exteriour 
Webs are cinereous, the interiour black ; the covert Feathers of the fecond Row im- 
mediately incumbent on the fecond decade of Qtiills have their Tips of a rediih yellow. 

The Tail is made up of fixteen Feathers all afh-coloured, excepting their exteriour 
Edges, which are whitifli; the two middlemoft run out into very long and fharp Points, 
their Ends black, being produced two Inches and a half beyond the reft, which gives 
rhis Bird the Name of the Sea-Pheaja?it, or with fome the Pintail; its Feet are of a 
dark lead Colour, it hath a fmall Labyrinth, and a great Gall. The Hen is like in Co- 
lour to the common V/ild-Duck, but fairer and lighter coloured, with more full and 
lively Mixtures of white and brown Colours ; the Head and upper part of the Neck in- 
clining to a redifti brown; the Bill and Legs of a dark lead Colour. 

This Bird may be diftinguiftied from all others of the Duck-Kind by the Length of 
the middle Feathers of its Tail, as by a certain and charaderiftick Note., 



Z 'tht 



(86) 

J 

The hoohed'liWd Duck and Drake. Anas roftro adunca 

Kumb: XCVI, XCVIL 

' I ^HE Drake; its Weight was two Pound and two Ounces; its 
-■- Length, from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail, was 
twenty five Inches and a half; the Breadth, when the Wings are ex- 
tended, two Foot ten Inches; the Bill was two Inches and a half long, 
of a pale green Colour moderately bending ; the Hook or Nail at the 
End black. 

The Head and upper part of the Neck, of a dark green, with two 
Lines of fmall white Specks, one from the upper part of the Bill, reach- 
ing over the Eye almoft to the back part of the Head, the other from 
the Bill, to the under part of the Eye, which was encompaffed with a 
Circle of the fame fmall white Feathers, the Chin was alfo fpeckled. 

The Throat, Breaft, and Belly, were white with fome few tranfverfe 
Spots of redilli brown ; the Back, fcapular Feathers of the Wings, and 
the Sides, are of the fame brown Colour, edged and fpeckled or dufted 
over with white. 

The prime Feathers of the Wings were twenty four ; the firft fix 
were all white, the reft redifli brown ; the firft Row of covert Feathers 
were blue with white Tips, the fecond Row brown with white Tips. 

The Tail was made up of twenty black Feathers with white Tips, 
four of the middlemoft being reflefted, circularly towards the Head: 
the Legs and Feet were of an orange Colour. 

The Duck of this Kind was very like the common Duck, excepting 
the Bill, which was hooked. Thefe Ducks are better layers than any 
of the other, either wild or tame. 



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' ( 87 ) 

The Pochard or great red-headed Wigeon, Ornas fera fufcaJ 

Numb. XCVIII. 

IT S Weight was thirty three Ounces 5 its Length, from the Tip of 
the Bill to the End of the Claws, was twenty one Inches ; Breadth, 
when the Wings were extended, was thirty two Inches. It is bigger 
than the common Wigeon, and for its Bignefs fhorter and thicker^ 
The lefler covert Feathers of the Wings, and thofe on the middle of the 
Back, are moft elegantly variegated with dark brown a'l^d cinereous; 
waved Lines: the Rump and Feathers under the Tail are black, fo that 
the Tail is encompaffed with a Ring of black, the lower part of the 
Neck is likewife black: the Head and almoft the whole Neck, are of a 
deep fulvous or red Colour ; the middle part of the Breaft, and lower part 
of the Belly, are of the fame Colour with the Back, and varied with the 
like undulated Lines, but both the Colours paler; towards the Vent it 
is by degrees darker coloured ; the Tail is very fhort, not exceeding twa 
Inches, made up of twelve Feathers, of a dark grey ; the outmoft the 
fhorteft, the reft gradually longer to the middlemoft ; yet the Excefs is 
not conjfiderable, fo that notwithftanding it is not to be reckoned among^ 
thofe that have fharp Tails. The Quill -Feathers of the Wings are about 
twenty five all of one Colour, viz. a dark cinereous or Afli-colour j the 
interiour or baftard Wing, and leffcr covert Feathers of the under iide of 
the Wings are white: the Bill is bigger and broader than in xhtWigeony 
the Feathers divide the middle of the upper Mandible, coming down 
from the Forehead in Form of a Peak or acute Angle; the upper 
Mandible is of a lead Colour, but its Tip black, the nether is wholly- 
black, the Irides of the Eyes are yellow, the Feet lead-coloured, the 
Membranes conneding the Toes blackifh, the inmoft Toe the leaftj 
having a membranous Border annexed to its outfide, the back Toe hath- 
an Appendant Membrane or Fin. 

The charaderiftick Note of this Bird is one uniform Colour of its 
Wing, without any Feathers of different Colours in the Middle of the 
Wings, as is ufual in moft Birds of this Kind. 



"Mt 



( 88 j 
The Wigeon ox Whew er. Anas Fiftularij 

Numb. XCIX. , 

IT S Weight is one Pound and fix Ounces ; Length, from the Point of the Bill to 
the end of the Feet, is twenty Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, two 
Foot ten Inches -, the Head and upper End of the Neck are red ; the Crown towards 
the Bill is of a dilute Colour, from red inclining to a yellowifh white j the upper part 
of the Bread and Sides, as far as the Wings, are beautified with a very fair Tindure of 
red wine Colour, with finall tranfverfe black Lines ; the fcapular Feathers, and thofe 
on the Sides under the Wings are very curioufly varied with narrow tranfverfe black 
and white waved Lines ; the middle of the Back is brown, the Edges of the Feathers 
being cinereous, efpecially towards the Tail; the Feathers behind the Vent next the 
Tail are black; the Breaft and Belly are white with a little Mixture of yellow; on 
Jboth Sides under the Legs are Spots of a redifh brown; under the Tail are white 
Feathers alike fpotted and mingled with black : the Tail is fliarp pointed, and confifts of 
fourteen Feathers, of which the fix outer on each fide are brown, their exteriour Edges 
being whitifh, the two middle ones are black, with a Mixture of Afh-colour; of the 
Quill-Feathers the ten outmofi: are brown, the next ten have white Tips, and among 
them the fifteenth, fixteenth, feventeenth, and eighteenth have their outer Webs 
firft of a black purplifh Colour, then as far as they appear beyond the Covert Feathers 
of a lovely blue ; in the eighteenth Feather the exteriour half of the outer Web is of a 
purplifli black, the interiour towards the Bottom is cinereous ; but along the Border of 
the black are fm-all light Spots from the white Tip to the Bottom; the twentieth Feather 
is all of a pale or white Afli-colour ; the twenty firft and twenty fecond are white about 
the Edges, black in the middle along the Shaft; the fmall covert Feathers of the Wings 
are of a light brawn, or dark Afli-colour, but thofe tliat cover the Quills from the 
tenth to the twentieth are parti-coloured of brown, white, and cinereous. 

In the Structure of the Mouthy Tongue, and Head, it difi'ers little from the com- 
mon TFild-Duck, unlefs perchance the Head be lefs in Proportion to the Body; the 
tipper Mandible of the Bill is of a lead Colour, with a round black Nail at the End ; 
the Feet from a duiky incline to a Lead Colour; the Claws are black; the outmoft 
Toe longer than the inmoil ; the back Toe the fhorteft. 

It feeds upon Grafs and Weeds growing in the Bottoms of Rivers, and Lakes, and 
Channels of Water, alfo upon Wilks, Periwinkles, &c. that it finds there. The Males 
of this Kind at Cambridge are called Wigeons, the Females IVheivers. The Flefh of ic 
for Delicacy is much inferiour to Teal, or indeed Wild- Ducks. 



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The wild MaUard. Bofchas major. 

Numb. C, 

JTS Weight was two Pound four Ounces; Length, from the Tip of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail, twenty five Inches and a half; Breadth, when the Wings were 
extended, was thirty four Inches ; the Bill is of a greenifla yellow, from the Tip to 
the Angles of the Mouth, two Inches and a half; Breadth one Inch, not very flat; 
the upper Mandible hath at the End a round Tip or Nail ; the lower Eye-lids are 
white: the Head and upper part of the Neck are of a delicate fhining green, then 
follows a Ring, of white, which yet fails of being an intire Circle not coming round 
behind ; from the white Ring, the Throat is of a chefnut Colour down to the Breaft ; 
the Breaft it felf and Belly are of a white Afh-colour, fprinkled with innumerable dark 
Specks as it were all Drops; under the Tail the Feathers are black; the upper fide of 
the -Neck from cinereous is red, fprinkled in like manner with Spots ; the middle of 
the back between the Wings is red, the lower part black, and (lill deeper on the 
Rump with a Glofs of purple -, the Sides under the Wings, and the longer Feathers on 
the Thighs are adorned with tranfverfe brown Lines, making a very fair Shew; ia 
them the white Colour fcems to have a Mixture of blue. 

The leffer Rows of Wing-Feathers are red: the long fcapular Feathers are filver colour- 
ed, elegantly variegated with tranfverfe brown Lines ; ia each Wing are tv/enty four Quills, 
the oucmofi ten of a dusky brown ; the fecond Decad have white Tips, their outer 
Webs are of a fliining purplifh blue Colour, but between the white and blue intercedes a 
Eorder of black ; the Tip of the twenty firft is white, the exteriour Web of a dark purple ; 
the middle part of the twenty fecond is a little filver coloured; the twenty third is wholly 
of a filver Colour, yet the Edges on each fide are black; the twenty fourth is like- 
wife of a filver Colour, only the exteriour Border black, the outmoft covert Feathers 
are of the fame Colour with the Quills, but thofe immediately incumbent on the 
purple blue Quills have black Tips, and next the Tips a broad Line or crofs Bar of 
white, fo that the blue Spot is terminated with a double Line, firft black, and above that 
white : the Tail hath twenty Feathers ending in fl:iarp Points, the four middle ones 
of thefe are reflefted circularly towards the Head, beii.g black with a Glofs of purple; 
the eight next to thefe on each fide are white, efpecially the outer ones and on their ex- 
teriour Webs, the nearer to the reflevfied ones the greater Mixture of brown they 
have ; the covert Feathers of the infide of the Wing, and the interiour baftard Wing 
are white; the Legs and Feet of a faffron Colour; the Claws brown, but that of the 
back Tee almoft white; the inmoft fore Toe is the leaft, the Meoibranes connedling 
the Toes are of a more fordid Colour tlian t'ne Toes; the Wind-pipe at its Divarication 
hath a VelTel called a Labyrinth ; the Lees are feathered down to the Knees. See the 
Wild-Duck, Vol. I. Plate "99. 



A 3 " The 



( 50 ) 

The Cock GooJa\ider. Merganfer Mas, 

Numb. CI. ^ 

T T S Weight is four Pound ; its Length, from the Tip of the Bill to- 
-^ the End of the Tail, is twenty eight Inches; its Breadth, when the 
Wings are extended, forty Inches : the Body long, the Back broad and. 
flat ; the Head and upper Part of the Neck black, below that white, 
as it were a broad Ring ; the Breaft of a beautiful chefnut Colour, with 
tranfverfe Lines of dusky brown; the upper fide of the Neck more ob-^ 
fcurc inclining to black; the Belly of a yellowifh white, ns is alfo the 
under fide of the Tail ; the Wing hath about twenty fix Quill-Feathers 
moftly black, the next Decad white with a Bar of black between them 
and the fecond, and alfo between the upper covert Feathers, and the 
third Decad with a Border of black round the Wing; the upper part 
of the Back black : the Tail is compofed of eighteen black Feathers. 

The Bill was four Inches and a quarter long, from the Tip to the Angles 
of the Mouth, of a red Colour, hooked, and the upper and lower 
Mandible toothed on both Sides like a Saw ; the Tongue and Palate _ 
yellow ; the Ears are round, the Noftrils large, the Irides of the Eyes 
of a fanguine Colour. 

The Legs and Feet red, the back Toe broad with an appendant 
Membrane. It hath a huge bony Labyrinth, on the Wind-pipe jufh 
above the Divarications. 

The Stomach is fcarce mufculous, out of which was taken feveral 
fmall Fifli; it hatli a Gall-bladder; the blind Guts were three Inches 
long, and full of Excrements. The Flefli is not wjiolefottie _ having^ a 
ijifhy unpleafant Tafle. 



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( 90 
The Hen French Teal. Qiierquedula Franc ia Feiii. 

Numb. CII. 

ITS Weight was twelve Ounces; Lengthy from tht 
Tip of the Bill, to the End of the Tail, was fix-teen 
Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings were extended, was twen^ 
ty four Inches ; its Bill is broad, black, and fomething 
reflected upwards ; the Irides of the Eyes, of a yellowifli 
white; the top of the Head, upper part of the Neck, 
Back, and Tail were of a dusky brown Colour ; its 
Throat, Breaft, Belly, and Thighs were of a fordid 
white, with tranfverfe Spots of dark brown towards the 
Neck and Back, and more dilute on. the Breaft, Belly, 
and Thighs. 

The Number of prime Feathers of the Wings are 
twenty four, being for the moft part of a dark brown 
Colour; the four or live firft Feathers, of the firft Row 
of Coverts are of a dark blue, all the reft in that Row 
of a lliining green Colour, both having white Tips. The 
fecond Row, was of a hairColour with broad Tips of for- 
did white, inclining to yellow, the fcapiilar Feathers, of a 
hairColour edged with faint fmali Strociks ( f white. The 
Legs and Feet were of a pale du^ky brownifli Colour. 

T his Bird is of a delicate Tafte and whoiefome Nou- 
riflinient. Seethe Cock, Vol. I. Plate loo. 



The 



The Summer Teal Cock and Hen, Ana circia/ 

Numb, cm, CIV. 

TT8 Weight was twelve Ounces; Length, from the Point of the Bill 
■*• to the End of theTaiJ, fixteen Inches and a quarter; Breadth, when, 
the Wings were extended, is twenty three Inches, this is the lead of all 
the Duck-Kind y its Bill is blackifh, the Head is of a dark bay Colour 
with a broad Stripe of white on each Side over the Eyes tending down- 
wards to the hinder part of the Head ; the top of the Head, upper 
part of the Neck, and Back are of a dusky Colour, as is alfo the Tail ; 
the Breafl: is of a fordid yellow with tranfverfe dusky Lines, the Belly 
more dilute, and faintly fpotted with a yellowifL brown and dusky 
Colour. 

The Wing hath twenty live Quill-Feathers of a brown dusky Colour, 
having their exteriour Edges white; the firft Row of covert Feathers 
of a fhining green with white Tips, the next above them afh-colour, the 
lower Part half way white ; the fcapular Feathers are afh-coloured, the 
long ones of this Kind are white with black Edges ; the Legs and Feet 
are of a dusky brown Colour, the Claws black. In the Stomach, when 
differed, was found fmall Stones, Grafs, and Seeds of Water-Plants. 

The Head of the Hen wanted the bay or redifh Colour, and had 
more white jntermixt with the brown; the upper Part of the Neck, 
Back, W'ings, and Tail were of a dusky brown Colour, wdth five or 
fix blueifh green Feathers; their Tips and exteriour Edges white, the 
firft Row of covert Feathers of the Wings, the Breaft, and Belly, of a 
faint yellow ; the Thighs and lower part next the Vent, dusky and 
faintly fpotted. 

The Legs and Feet were of the fame colour with thofe of the Cock, 
the Claws black. Thefe tvv^o Birds were brought me by William Ly- 
dally Poulterer. 



The 



103 




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THE 



I 







B, 

BAnana Bird 
Barker 
Bee-Eater 
Black Game-Hen 
Bunting 

Butcher-Bird fAfli-coloured] 
Butcher Bird [Leffer Cock] 
Butcher-Bird [Leffer Hen] 
Butcher-Bitd [Red beaded] 
Black Bird [Pied] 



40 

71 
4+ 

34 

50 

^3 
14 

15 

16 

37 



Eagle [Golden] 
Eagle [Black] 
Eagle [Vukurine] 



Falcon Gentle 
Fieldfare [Pled] 
Flamingo 



t 
2 

3 



6 

36 

77 



Carafow [CockJ 

Carafovv [Hen] 

Cafoware 

Chaffinch (Pied] 

Chatterer [Bohemiari] 

Coddv- Moddy 

Cormorant 

Cornifli Chough 

Crane 

Crow 

Crown Bird [Mexican] 

Crow [Pvoyfton] 

Dobchick 
Dottrel Cock 
Dottrel Hen 
Dottrel [Lincoln fl:kire] 
Dove [Jamaica] 
Dove [Greenlai}d] 
Drake [Hookbill'd] 
Puck [HookbUl'd] 



Gander [Mofcovian] 

31 Ganfer 

32 Godwitt 

60 Goofe [Mofcovian] 
54 Gofhawk 

26 Guinea Hen 

87 Gull [Brown] 

8 1 Gull [Brown headed] 

24 Gull [v loven footed] 

65 Gull [Grey] 

21 Gull [White] 

1 9 Goofander Cock 

23 

Hen Hat-rier 

76 Hoopoe Cock 

61 Hoopoe Hen 

62 Horfeman [Red-legged] 

63 Horfeman [Green-legged] 

49 

So L 

6 Lanneret 

B b 



91 

93 

70 

92 
8 

35 

% 
86 

8z 

83 

84 

IQl 



5 

42 

43 
68 

69 



T ^ 

Loon 



The I N 



E X. 



Loon [Greater] 
Macaw Jamaica 
Mallard 
Martin [Houfe] 
Martin [Bank] 
Minor 
More Cock 
More Hen 
Mountain Cock 
Mountain Hen 



Nuthatch 



N 



O 



Owl [Great Horn] 
Owl [Lefler Horn] 
Owl [white] 
Owl [Little] 
Owzel [Water] 



Paroquet [Brafler] 

Pie [Brazillian] 

Pigeon [Horknian] 

Pigeon [Portugal] 

Pigeon [Wood] 

Pintail 

Pheafant [Sea] Cock 

Phealani [Sea] Hen 

Pochard 

Puffin Cock 

Puffin Plen 



75 

17 

100 

5^ 
ibid. 

38 
72 
72 
29 

30 



'28 



9 

ro 

II 

12 

39 



18 

25 

45 
48 

46 

95 
94 

95 

98 

78 

79 



R 



ivingtau 


^ 


Rook 


22c 


S 




Sanderling 


74 


Sparrows [Bengal' 


S2 


Sparrows [China" 


53 


Sparrows [Reed] 


51* 


Spoon-Bill 


66. 


Starling [Bengal] 


4r 


Stork [White] 


64 


Swallow [Great Sea' 


88 


Swallow [Leller Sea] Cock 


89 


Swallow [Lefler Sea] Hen 


90 


Swift 


55 


T 




Teal [French] Hen 


ro-z' 


Teal [Summer] Cock 


104 


Teal [Summer] Hen 


104. 


Titmoufe [Crefted" . 


57 


Titmouie [Long-Tailed] 


ibid 


Totano Cock 


68 


Totano Hen 


69" 


Turky [Crefled; 


33- 






V/arwowen 


.4'' 


Water Wagtails [Yellow] 


58 


Water Hen [Small] 


73 


Widgeon 


99 


Wooti- Pecker [Black 


27 


Wood Turtle 


^7 


Wrens [Green' 


59 



Raven 

Raven [Night] 



20 



67 Yarwelp 



7^ 



N 



S. 



it 



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